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Skeletal System 1

Skeletal System-Bones

Bones Calcified Connective Tissue Cells (osteocytes) in a matrix of ground substances and collagen fibers Reservoir for Calcium and Phosphorus Act as levelers on which muscles act to produce movement permitted by joints Contain marrow
Bones classification According to shape:long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid According to developmental history: endochondral and membranous
Bone marrow internal soft tissue where blood cells are formed
Long Bones Develop by Endochondral Ossification (replacement of hyaline cartilage plate) Parts: Diaphysis (shaft), Epiphyses (2 ends)& Metaphysis (part where diaphysis is adjacent to the epuphyses)
Long Bones Examples humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, & phalanges
Diaphysis (Long Bones) shaft (central region) Composed of thick tube of compact bone enclosing marrow cavity
Metaphysis (Long Bones) part of diaphysis Growth zone between diaphysis and epiphyses during bone development
Epiphyses (Long Bones) Expanded articular ends Composed of Spongy bone and surrounded by thin layer of Compact bone
Short Bones Composed of Spongy bone and Marrow Surrounded by thin outer layer of Compact bone
Sort Bones Examples Carpal & Tarsal bones (Cuboid Shaped)
Flat Bones Two layers of Compact bone enclosing Spongy bone and Marrow space Have articular surface covered with Fibrocartilage Grow by replacement of Connective Tissue
Flat Bones Examples Ribs, Sternum, Scapulae, Vault of Skull Bones
Irregular Bones Mostly Spongy bone enveloped by thin layer of Compact bone
Irregular Bones Examples Bones of mixed shapes ex. bones of skull, vertebrae and coxa
Sasamoid Bones Develop in certain tendons and reduce friction on the tendon (protect from excessive wear)
Sesamoid Bones Examples Found where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the limbs, as the wrist and knee (ex. patella)
OSTEOBLAST Synthesizes new bob
OSTEOCLAST Resorption= break down bone matrix and release calcium and minerals Remodeling of bone
PARATHYROID HORMONE mobilization of calcium by promoting bone resorption
CALCITONIN suppresses mobilization of calcium from bone
OSTEOID organic matrix of bone prior calcification
OSTEOMALACIA gradual softening of the bone due to failure of bone to calcify due to lack of Vit. D or renal tubular dysfunction
OSTEOPENIA decreased calcification of bone or reduced bone mass due to inadequate osteoid synthesis
OSTEOPOROSIS age-related disorder decreased bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures of the hip, vertebra, and wrist Bone resorption outpaces bone formation Signs: vertebral compression, loss of body height, development of kyphosis, & hip fracture
OSTEOPETROSIS abnormally dense bone, obliterating the marrow cavity Due to defective resportion of immature bone
Created by: mmarino001



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