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Integumentary System

Body Functions Chapter 8 Page 171

The integumentary system is made up of: 1. Skin. 2. Hair. 3. Nails. 4. Sebaceous glands (sebum - oil). 5. Cerumenous glands {cerumen (earwax)}. 6. Sudoriferous glands (sweat).
The skin: 1. Is flexible. 2. Is waterproof. 3. Protects the body from ultraviolet (UV) light. 4. Protects the body from many chemicals and microbes. 5. Regulates body temperature (evaporation).
The outermost layer of skin is called the epidermis.
The epidermis is composed of epithelial cells.
Epithelial cells reproduce by mitosis (30,000/day).
Newer epithelial cells push upward where they slowly necrose (die).
This process is called keratinization.
These keratinized cells are constantly being sloughed
Skin sloughing (shedding) helps rid the body of pathogens (disease producers).
The second layer of the skin is called the dermis AKA corium.
The dermis (corium) consists of connective tissue (collagenous + elastin fibers).
The function of collagen is to bind skin cells together.
Embedded in the dermis (corium) are: 1. Blood vessels. 2. Nerves. 3. Lymph vessels. 4. Hair follicles. 5. Sebaceous glands (sebum). 6. Sudoriferous glands (2-4 million sweat glands).
Sweat is released through ossa called sudoriferous pores.
The next layer of the skin is called the subcutaneous (subQ or subcu) AKA hypodermis.
The subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) consists mainly of adipose tissue (fat).
The subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) attaches the dermis (corium) to the underlying muscles.
The fibrous connective tissue of the body is called fascia
When skin is subjected to an excessive amount of abrasion or friction, a thickened area develops called a callus (calluses).
Skin pigmentation (color) is genetically determined by the amount of melanin produced.
A genetic mutation causing an absence of melanin production is called albinism.
Dilation of the blood vessels in the dermis (corium) causes erythroderma AKA erythema AKA rubeosis.
Causes of erythema include: 1. Pyrexia (fever). 2. Hypertension (HTN). 3. Inflammation. 4. Blushing.
A bluish discoloration of the skin caused by hypoxia or hypothermia is called cyanosis (cyanotic).
Excessive hemolysis of erythrocytes or hyperbilirubinemia causes a yellowish orangish discoloration to the skin and/or sclerae (white part of each eye) called xanthoderma or jaundice or icterus (kernicterus).
Hair is a characteristic of all mammals.
On humans, hair can be found on the entire body except for the: 1. Palms. 2. Soles. 3. Glans penis.
The average human produces 7 miles of hair/year.
Each hair is composed of: 1. A shaft. 2. A root. 3. A follicle.
A shaft is the visible portion of the hair.
A root is found in the epidermal tube.
A follicle is where mitosis occurs.
Attached to each hair follicle is an arrector pili muscle which causes the hair shaft to “stand on its end” causing a “goose flesh” appearance when we get scared or cold.
Genetics will control: 1. Hair color. 2. Hair texture. 3. Hair loss (alopecia).
The visible part of a nail is called a nail body.
The part of a nail that grows is called a nail bed.
The base of a nail is covered by tissue called a cuticle AKA eponychium.
onychocryptosis an abnormal condition of an ingrown (hidden) nail
onychomycosis an abnormal condition of a nail(s) caused by fungus
paronychia a condition of inflammation adjacent to a nail
cicatrix (cicatrices) scar(s)
keloid an exaggerated or hypertrophied scar
Keloids are associated with surgery and 3rd degree burns.
ulcer an erosion (wearing away) of the skin or mucous membrane
Decubitus ulcer is AKA bedsore or pressure sore (ulcer).
Decubitus ulcers commonly occur on bony prominences (pressure points) such as: 1. Coccyx (tailbone). 2. Calcanei (heel bones). 3. Olecranons (Holy Crayon) {elbows}. 4. Scapulae (shoulder bone). 5. Occipital bone (posterior base of the cranium {skull}). 6. Pelvis (ilia and ischia).
Ecchymosis (ecchymotic) black + blue mark caused by bleeding under the skin AKA hematoma or contusion or bruise
edema (edematous) tissue swelling caused by an accumulation of fluid
pitting edema fluid accumulation where indentations occur after light palpation
eschar(otic) necrotic tissue caused by a burn
macule (macular) flat usually erythematous skin lesion
papule (papular) a raised skin lesion < 1cm
nodule (nodular) a raised skin lesion > 1cm
nevus (nevi) mole(s) or birthmark(s)
petechia(e) pinpoint skin hemorrhage(s)
purpura (happy cat) a combination of ecchymosis and petechiae
pustule (pustular) a papule filled with pus
abscess (abscesses) a collection of pus
verruca(e) wart(s)
pallor paleness
vesicle a raised lesion filled with a clear liquid AKA a blister or bulla (> 1cm) or bleb (< 1 cm)
abrasion mechanical superficial damage to the skin AKA “scrape”
excoriation chemical superficial damage to the skin such as “diaper rash”
cellulitis (dermatitis) inflammation of skin cells
urticaria hives AKA wheals
Urticaria an indication of an allergic reaction.
cyst a thickening or lump
furuncle an infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue AKA a boil
carbuncle (car load) a cluster of furuncles
gangrene (gangrenous) putrefaction (rot) caused by tissue necrosis and microbial proliferation
laceration tissue that is cut, torn, or ripped
avulsion tearing any part of the body away from the whole
xeroderma dry skin
ichthyosis dry scaly skin
crustation(s) scab(s)
vitiligo (Michael Jackson) localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
Created by: willowsalem