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ClinAnatomy Pelvis

What is the false pelvis? It is the "greater pelvis" that is associated with the upper parts of the pelvic bones; part of the abdomen
What is the perineum? The area below the pelvic floor to the skin that contains the external genitalia and the openings of the GU and GI tract
At what point does the male reproductive tract connect to the urinary tract? Via the ejaculatory duct, within the prostate
Name the 2 important ligaments of the pelvic wall. Sacrospinous and Sacrotuberous
Name the muscle and the large nerve that go through the greater sciatic foramen. Piriformis muscle and sciatic nerve
What bone makes up the pubic arch? The 2 ischiopubic rami. This is the anterior aspect of the pelvic outlet.
What 2 structures make up the pelvic floor? The pelvic diaphragm and the perineal membrane.
What muscles make up the pelvic diaphragm? Levator ani and coccygeus
What portion of levator ani is important to maintain fecal continence? puborectalis portion
The diamond of the perineum can be divided into 2 triangles. A horizontal line b/w what structures divides these 2 triangles? A line b/w the ischial tuberosities.
The obturator canal is the pathway from the pelvic cavity to ______ medial thigh (this will be important when we cover lower limb)
What important structures cross the ureters? A) in females B) in males uterine artery and ductus deferens
What important structure can be palpated along the anterior rectal wall? the prostate
What spinal cord segments innervate the perineum? S3-S5
What is the nerve to the perineum - sensory and motor? pudendal nerve. it courses through greater sciatic and lesser sciatic foramina, crosses the ischial spine and runs along the lateral walls of the ischioanal fossa
What nerve is responsible for erection? the parasympathetic innervation via the pelvic splanchnic nerves
what structure is in the midline of the perineum and plays a role in pelvic support as the muscles intersect here? the perineal body; this may be cut while performing an episiotomy
What is the difference b/w the pelvic bones of a female vs a male? less prominent ischial spines and sacral promontory. wider angle of the arch 80-85 degrees vs 50-60 degrees
What is the significance of the pectinate line of the anal canal? Above this line has different blood, nervous and lymphatic supply. Visceral sensation above the line, somatic below.
What is the function of the ischioanal fossa? it allows for expansion during defecation and childbirth
Where is the trigone of the urinary bladder located? It is a smooth area formed by a triangle connecting ureteral and urethral openings
What is another name for the paraurethral glands of the female? Skene's glands
What is another name for the vestibular glands of the female? Bartholin's glands.
What are the 3 parts of the male urethra? prostatic, membranous and spongy
What is the terminal portion of the ductus deferens called? Ampulla
What joins the ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct? The seminal vesicle
What is the clinical significane of the seminal colliculus of the prostate? This elevation lets the surgeon know when he/she is within the prostatic urethra.
Why would one not wish to remove a testicular tumor through the scrotum? Doing so may lead to spreading of cancer cells into a different lymphatic drainage pathway since the testes drain up higher in the abdomen into the aortic region of lymph nodes - not inguinal
What is a hydrocele? Excessive fluid in the tunica vaginalis surround the testes. (remember the processus vaginalis- the outpouching of peritoneum)
What is a varicocele and how is it described to feel when palpated? varicose veins of the pampinoform plexus - feels like a bag of worms
What is the function of the bulbourethral glands? Produce a small amt of alkaline secretion prior to ejaculation.
The narrowest portion of the uterine (fallopian) tube that connects to the uterus is the ------------- isthmus
The portion of the uterine tube that has fimbriae is the ------- infundibulum
Where does fertilization usually occur The ampulla of the tube
What is the portion of the uterus that extends down into the vaginal canal? the cervix
What is the lowest region of the pelvic cavity in an upright woman? The rectouterine pouch (pouch of douglas)
The glans penis is a distal expansion of the ___________ corpus spongiosum
What is the vestibule? It is the area b/w the labia minora (not mentioned in class, won't test on this, but good to know)
Which is more anterior, the vaginal opening or the urethral? urethral
Created by: Dr. Hall



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