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Ch. 8 Medical Terms

Digestive System

an/o- without
bar/o- weight; pressure
chol/e- bile
cholecyst/o- gallbladder
col/o colon
colon/o- colon
dent/o- teeth
dont/o- teeth
duoden/o- promixal portion of the small intestine
enter/o- intestine
esophag/o- esophagus
gastr/o- stomach
gloss/o- tongue
hepat/o- liver
ile/o- ileum
jejun/o- The section of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum.
lingu/o- tongue
lith/p- stone
or/o- mouth
pancreat/o- pancreas
phag/o- swallowing
proct/o- anus, rectum
rect/o- rectum
sigmoid/o- sigmoid colon
stomat/o- mouth
-emesis to vomit
-lithiasis the presence, condition, or formation of stones
-pepsia a state of the digestion
-phagia swallowing
aerophagia swallowing air
amebic dysentery any of a number of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestine
anastomosis communication between vessels by collateral channels
anorexia nervosa unrealistic fear of weight gain
antiemetic Preventing or arresting vomiting
aphthous ulcers a local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue, produced by sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue.
ascites an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
bariatrics The branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.
borborygmus A rumbling noise produced by the movement of gas through the intestines.
botulism a natural poison produced by certain bacteria in the Clostridium genus
bulimia nervosa consume large amounts of food (binge) and then try to rid themselves of the food and calories (purge) by fasting, excessive exercise, vomiting, or using laxatives.
cachexia Weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, and general debility that can occur during a chronic disease.
cheilosis fissuring and dry scaling of the vermilion surface of the lips and angles of the mouth, a characteristic of riboflavin deficiency.
cholangiography radiography of the bile ducts
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholangitis inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecystitis a painful inflammation of the gallbladder's wall.
choledocholithotomy incision into common bile duct for stone removal.
cholelithiasis The presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cholera Any of various diseases of domesticated animals, such as chickens, turkeys, or hogs, marked by severe gastroenteritis.
cirrhosis Chronic interstitial inflammation of any tissue or organ.
colonoscopy Examination of the colon with a colonoscope. Also called coloscopy.
Crohn's Disease Ileitis involving the terminal portion of the ileum and characterized by abdominal pain, ulceration, and fibrous tissue buildup
diverticulosis A condition characterized by the presence of numerous diverticula in the colon
dyspepsia Disturbed digestion
dysphagia difficult swallowing
emesis act of vomiting
enteritis Inflammation of the intestinal tract, especially of the small intestine
eruption An appearance of a rash or blemish on the skin
esophageal varices The muscular membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach; the gullet.
esophagogastroduodenoscopy An endoscope that is inserted through the mouth and used for examining the interior of the stomach
gastroduodenostomy a surgical operation in which the duodenum is joined to a new opening in the stomach, esp to bypass an obstruction
gastroesophageal reflux disease A chronic condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter allows gastric acids to reflux into the esophagus, causing heartburn, acid indigestion, and possible injury to the esophageal lining
gastrostomy tube feeding tube
Hematemesis vomiting of blood
Hemoccult Test a test to see if there is blood in your poop
hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
herpes labialis cold sore
hiatal hernia A hernia in which part of the stomach protrudes through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Also called hiatus hernia
hyperemesis severe and excessive vomiting
lieus The post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another
inguinal hernia protrusion of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.herĀ“nial
jaundice condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bile pigments in the blood resulting from liver disease.
melena The passage of black tarlike stools containing blood that has been acted on by the intestinal juices
morbid obesity an increase in body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat.obeseĀ“,
nasogastric intubation the placement of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distension by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis.
obesity being over weight
periodontium the tissues investing and supporting the teeth, including the cementum, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and gingiva.
peristalsis The wavelike muscular contractions of the intestine or other tubular structure that propel the contents onward by alternate contraction and relaxation. Also called vermicular movement
proctopexy surgical fixation of the rectum
regurgitation vomiting
salmonellosis Infection with bacteria of the genus Salmonella, characterized by gastroenteritis and fever, and caused especially by eating improperly stored or undercooked foods
sigmoidoscopy procedure by which a doctor inserts either a short and rigid or slightly longer and flexible fiber-optic tube into the rectum to examine the lower portion of the large intestine (or bowel).
stomatorrhagia Bleeding from any part of the oral cavity.
trismus a prolonged tonic spasm of the muscles of the jaw
ulcerative colitis inflammatory bowel disease (IBD
volvulus Abnormal twisting of the intestine causing obstruction
xerostomia Dryness of the mouth resulting from diminished or arrested salivary secretion
Created by: kenny.lam13