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anatomy and physiology

What is the 5 skeletal system functions? support, Storage of materials and Lipids, Blood cell productions, protection, leverage.
What is a Long bone? What is an example of Long bones? A long, slender bone found in the upper and lower limbs. One example would be the Femur and the Metatarsal
Which bone is the largest, heaviest bone in the body? The Femur.
What is a short bone? What is an example of a short bone? Box like in appearance, short and stubby bones. Examples would be the carpals and the tarsals
What is a Flat Bone? What is an example of a flat bone? A thin, "spongy sandwhich", almost parallel that provide protection and surface area for muscle attachment. Example would be roof of the skull, scapula & Ilium, sternum and ribs.
What is a Irregular bone? What is an example of an irregular bone? A complex shape with short, flat, notched or ridge surface. An example would be vertebrae, some skull bones and parts of the pelvis.
What is a sesamoid bone? What is an example of a sesamoid bone? A small, flat bone the develops inside tendons located near joints at the hands, feet and knees. There are 26 locations.
What is a sutural bone? Where are they located? Small, Flat, irregularly shaped bones between the Flat bones of the skull. Individual variations in shape, number and positions.
What forms the Osseous tissue? Compact Bone and Spongy Bone.
What is a compact Bone? A relatively solid, sturdy protective layer that is always located on the surface of the bone.
What is Spongy Bone? An Osseous tissue that forms an open network of struts and plates that is the inside (interior) part of the bone.
What is the structure of a Flat bone? a "spongy bone sandwich", that has layers of compact bone that is covering a core of spongy bone. It has no marrow activity, although marrow is present.
What is the structure of Long bones? Epiphysis (head and ends), Diaphysis ( The long, tubular shaft) and Metaphysis (Between the Diaphysis and Epiphysis).
What is Diaphysis structure? Has a layer of compact bone that surounds the medullary cavity (Or marrow)
What is epiphysis structure? Consists largely of spongy bone within a thin cortex of compact bone. a portion is within joint capsule is covered with hyaline cartilage.
What is Bone Marrow? Located in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis and between the struts and the plates of the epiphysis. It is a loose connective tissue. Contains Yellow and Red marrow.
What is yellow marrow? Marrow that contains a large numbers of adipocytes.
What is Red marrow? Marrow that is a mixture of mature and immature RBC'S, WBC's and stem cells that produce them.
What is bone made up of? Bone has supportive connective tissue containing cells, fiber and ground substance.
What is the matrix of the bone? Is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts/phosphates( 2/3 of weight) around the collagen fibers (1/3 of the weight). Osteocytes and other cells >2%. with small amounts of Na+, Mg, and F-.
What are Lacunae ? Pockets in the matrix that contain osteocyte.
What is Canaliculi? Narrow passageways through the matrix that extend between the lacunae and nearby blood vessels. It exchanges nutrients waste products.
In the Bone matrix, what does Calcium Phosphate interacts with what to form Hydroxyapatite crystals? Calcium Hydroxide.
What is the characteristics Calcium Phosphate Crystals? very hard, Inflexible and brittle. Likely to shatter with twisting and bending. Holds up well under compression.
What is the characteristics of Collagen Fibers? Very strong under tension, Flexible and tolerates twisting and bending. Do not resist compression.
where is Osteoprogenitor cells found? Found in the Cellular layer of Periosteum, Endostem (lines the morrow cavities) and lining the vascular pathways in the matrix.
What are the Osteoblast responsible for? Osteogenesis (process of producing new bone matrix) Osteoid (Matrix before calcium salts are deposited.) Promote the deposition of calcium salts in the matrix.
When a osteoblast becomes surrounded by bone matrix, it differentiates into what? Osteocyte
Lacunae are sandwiched between layers of calcified matrix called? Iamellae
What penetrates the lamellae and connect the lacunate with each other and nutrient sources. Canaliculi
What processes of these cells extend through the canaliculi and form gap junctions with the other osteocytes. Cytoplasmic.
What do osteocytes do? Recycle Ca+ salts in the matrix, Participate in the repair of damaged bone. (converts back into osteoblast if released from lacunae.
what is derived from monocytes, remove bone matrix by osteolysis (important in regulation of calcium and phosphate contraptions in body fluids) and must be in balance osteoblasts? Osteoclasts
What is compact bone? Its made up of Osteon that is the basic functional. They are arranged by concentric layers around a central canal , contains blood vessels, run parallel to the bone surface. Perforating canals to extend perpendicular to the surface.
What is the function of compact bone? it works by taking the osteons and aligning it the same way which makes the bone every strong when stressed along the axis.
What is the characteristic of Spongy Bone? Has no osteons or blood vessels. Matrix is made up of trabeculae network of struts and plates. diffuses nutrients through canaliculi, which open into the surfaces of the trabeculea. lighter than compact bone.
What is the function of Spongy bone? Located where bones are not stressed. Trabeculae are oriented along the lines of stres, but with cross branching. supports and protects cells of the bone marrow.
What is the function of periosteum? composed of a fiberous outer layer and a cellular inner layer, covers surfaces of all bone but the articular surfaces. Isolates bone from structures. provides a route for blood vessels. active growth and repair.
what are the collagen fibers of the periosteum are continuous with? Joint capsules, ligaments and tendons.
What is the function of the Endosteum? Active during bone growth, repair and remodeling, it is the incomplete cellular layer that lines the marrow cavity and central canals.
How many weeks does a fetus begin to develop a boney skeleton? At want age does a person stop developing bone? 6 weeks, when it is 0.5". At age 25, a person generally stops growing bone.
What are the two methods of bone formation? Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
What is the function of Intramembranous ossification? Bone develops from mesenchyme of fibrous connective tissue. mostly found in Flat bones.
What is the process of Intramembranous ossification? Mesenchymal fibrous connective tissue in deep layers of the dermis, which becomes osteoprogenitor cells, which differentiate into osteoblast, which then produce bone matrix around the collagen fibers of connective tissue. then ossification happens.
What is ossification? The process by which mineral is added to osteoid to form bone.
In intramembranous ossification, what is laid down after ossification to mineralized with hydroxyapatite? Osteoid
As osteoblast get trapped in the matrix, they differentiate into what? Osteocytes
What develops in the area and become trapped in the developing bone? Blood vessels
developing bone forms into small struts called spicules, which develop into what? Trabculae
What type of bone is formed as the trabeculae join together? Spongy bone ( Canellous bone)
Cells within the spaces of the spongey bone specialize and form the what? Periosteum
osteoblast from the periosteum lay down an outer layer of what? compact bone.
What is the purpose of Endochondral ossification? Bone replaces existing cartilage. Begins with the formation of a hyaline cartilage model.
Created by: 100000533023776