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resp 2012

resp mucosa lines the conducting portion of the resp system
lamina propria is the underlying layer of the areolar tissue that supports the resp epithelium
in the upper resp system, the lamina propria contains _____ mucous glands that discharge their secretions onto the epithelial surface
at the conducting portions of lower resp system, the lamina propria contains ______ bundles of smooth muscle cells
The Pharynx chamber shared by the digestive and nasal tract, and is divided into 3 subgroups (naso, oro, laryngo)
nasopharynx sup portion that is lines with psuedostratified columnar epithelium (the pharyngeal tonsils are located here)
oropharynx in the middle. lined with stratified columnar
laryngopharynx inferior most, lined with stratified columnar epithelia to resist the abrasions, chemical attack, and invasion by pathogens
during swallowing, the larynx is elevated and____ the epiglottis folds back over the glottis, preventing the entry of both liquids and foods into the resp tract.
vestibular folds are relatively inelastic, and help prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis (they also protect the delicate vocal folds)
the vocal folds(aka vocal cords) guard the entrance to the glottis and they are highly elastic
sound production air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal cords and produces sound waves
pitch factor of the diameter, length and tension of vocal folds. the diameter and length are directly related to the size of the larynx
trachea aka the windpipe, is continuous with the larynx and ends at the mediastinum, where is branches into the right and left primary bronchi
when food or liquid touch the vestibular or vocal folds _____ it triggers a coughing reflex
Right pulm bronchi has a larger diameter than the left, and descends towards the lung at a steeper angle so most foreign objects enter the Right bronchus rather than the left
The bronchi forms? each primary bronchi forms a secondary bronchi, aka lobar bronchi the right lung has 3 secondary bronchi and the left lung has 2 the secondary bronchi forms tertiary bronchi, aka segmental bronchi, then supplies the bronchiopulmonary segment
The bronchioles branch from the tertiary bronchi that then give rise to the terminal bronchioles
the bronchiole walls lack? cartilaginous support and are dominated by smooth muscle tissue
bronchioles are to the resp system to what arterioles are to the? cardiovascular system * they control the resistance to air flow and the distribution of air in the lungs
The ANS regulates the activity of the___ smooth muscle tissue, and therefore regulates the diameter of the bronchioles sympathetic innervation = bronchiodialation parasympathetic innervation = bronchioconstriction
pulmonary lobules supplied by branches of the pulm arteries, veins, and resp passageways
this is the thinnest, most delicate part of the resp tree resp lobule they deliver air to the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
Alveoli there are millions of alveoli in the lungs and they give the lung an open appearance.
surfactant an oily secretion containing a mix of phospholipids and proteins it is secreted on the alveolar surface to reduce surface tension and keep the alveoli open
gas exchange occurs across the ___ resp membrane of the alveoli
the resp membrane is a composite structure consisting of 3 layers squamous epithelial cells of the alveolus endothelial cell lining of the adjacent capillary the fused basal lamina in between the first two
lung tissue is nourished by two circuits one supplying the resp portion, and the other per-fusing to the conducting portion the resp exchange surfaces receive blood from the arteries of the pulm circuits
the endothelial cells in the alveolar capillaries are the primary source of ? angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which converts angiotensin 1 to 2
the pleural cavities and pleural membrane the two pleural cavities are separated by the mediastinum parietal - covers the inner surface of the thoracic wall and extends over the diaphragm visceral - overs the outer surface of the lungs and between the lobes
external resp external resp - includes all the processes involved in the exchange of O2 and CO2in the body's interstitial fluid the whole purpose of external resp is to meet the demands of the cells
3 steps involved in ext resp : pulm ventilation, aka breathing gas diffusion between blood and tissues transport of O2 and CO2
internal resp absorption of O2 and the release of CO2 by those cells
hypoxia low tissue O2 levels
anoxia the supply of O2 is cut off completely
pulm ventilation physical movement of air in and out of the lungs the primary function of this is to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation
Boyle's law if you decrease the volume of gas, its pressure will rise; if you increase the volume of gas, its pressure will fall ** P is inversely proportional to V
intrapulmonary pressure pressure inside the resp tract, at the alveoli
intrapulmonary pressure on inhalation your lungs expand and the intrapulm pressure drops
intrapulmonary pressure on exhalation your lungs recoil and intrapulm pressure rises again
intrapleural pressure pressure in the space between the parietal and visceral pleura
the cyclical changes between the pressure are responsible for the? respiratory pump - the mechanism that assists the venous return to the heart
resp cycle a single cycle of inhalation and exhalation
tidal volume the amount of air you move in and out of your lungs in a single resp cycle
muscles used in inhalation 1.contraction of diaphragm flattens the floor of thoracic cavity -increases its volume. 2.contraction of external intercostals by elevation of ribs 3. contraction of the sternocleidomastoids, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, scaline muscle all assis
muscles used in exhalation internal intercostal muscles and transverse thoracic muscle depress the ribs and reduce the depth of the thoracic cavity abdominal muscles, including the internal and external obliques, assist in compressing the abdomen
quite breathing aka eupnea - exhalation is a passive process
2 forms of quite breathing deep breathing aka diaphragmatic breathing - main movement is by the diaphragm shallow breathing aka costal breathing - main movement is by the rib cage
forced breathing aka hyperpnea - active inspiratory and expiratory movements
resp rate (f) the number of breaths you take in each minute vl of air moved each minute (VE) - resp rate x tidal volume (VT)
alveolar ventilation (VA) resp minute x (tidal vl - anatomic dead space)
anatomic dead space the volume of air in the conducting space
elationships between (VA), (VE), and (VT) for a given resp rate (f), increasing the tidal volume (VT) increases the alveolar ventilation rate for a given (VT), increasing the (f) increases the alveolar ventilation rate
resting tidal vl and residual vl resting tidal vl - under resting conditions, the amount of air you move in and out of your lungs in a single resp cycle residual vl - the amount of air that remains in your lungs after maximal exhalation
expiratory reserve vl (ERV) and inspiraoty reserve vl (IRV) (ERV) - the amount of air you can voluntarily expel after a normal resp cycle (IRV) - the amount of air you can take in over and above the tidal vl
vital capacity and total lung capacity vital capacity - amount of air you can move in and out of your lungs in a single resp cycle total lung capacity - the total volume of your lungs
Dalton's law the amount of air we breath is a mixture of gases, and each gas contributes to the total pressure in proportion to its relative abundance
partial pressure pressure contributed to a single gas in a mixture of gases
Henry's law at a given temp, the amount of particular gas in a solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas you see henrys law in action when you open a can of soda
differences in PP in across the resp membrane are substantial, why? important because the greater the difference in PP, the faster the rate of gas diffusion. *if PO2 in alveoli increases, the O2 diffusion into the blood will drop
efficiency of diffusion at the resp membrane - efficient for 4 reasons differences in PP across the resp membrane are substantial the distances involved in gas exchange are short gases are lipid soluble - O2 and CO2 diffuse through the surfactant layer total surface area is large blood flow and air flow are coor
under normal conditions, the most important things affecting Hb are PO2 in the blood, blood pH, temp, and metabolic activity with in RBCs
a small difference in the PO2 makes a big difference in the terms O2 binds to Hb , how/why? if PO2 increases, the saturation goes up and the Hb stores O2 if it goes down, Hb releases O2 into surrounding areas
as pH drops, the saturation declines, this means that ___ Hb molecules will release more O2 in the peripheral tissues
carbonic anydrase enzyme that catalyzes CO2 with water molecules CO2 + H2O <--carbonicanhydrase--> H2CO3 <--> [H+] + HCO3- *** the product of the reaction is called carbonic acid
when PCO2 rises - the reaction moves to the right and the rate of carbonic acid formation accelerates vice versa when PCO2 falls and reaction proceeds to the left
carbon dioxide transport: generated in the aerobic metabolism in the peripheral tissues. after entering the blood stream, it does one of 3 things converted to carbonic acid; bound to protein on Hb molecule; dissolved in plasma
carbonic acid immediately dissociate to a hydrogen and bicarbonte ion the bicarb ion moves into the plasma and a chloride ion enters the RBC = chloride shift
the resp rhythmicity centers in the ? medulla - set the pace of breathing and can be subdivided into the DRG and VRG
DRG the dorsal resp group - control the lower motor neurons innervating the internal intercostal muscles and diaphragm
VRG ventral resp group - only functions during forced breathing to activate exhalation
Created by: 25523102