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digestive 2012

Digestive function of liverProduces bile (fat emulsifier)
gallbaldder stores and concentrates bile salts
bile alkaline: yellow-green fluid containing bile salts, pigments, cholesterol, phospolipids, triglycerides & phospholipids - emulsifies fats & aids in digestion
What in bile aids digestion? Bile salts & phospholipids
Bile salts do what? Emulsify fats & facilitate absorption
Enterohepatic circulation Recycling mechanism for bile salts
The __ is a remnant of fetal umbilicle vein on liver. ligamentum teres (round ligament)
Where does bile leave liver? Common hepatic duct
Where does bile leave gallbladder? Cystic duct
The common hepatic duct & cystic duct fused to form __. the bile duct
Functional units of liver are? Liver lobules - plates of hepatocytes (liver cells)
Kupffer cells Hepatic macrophages that remove debris, bacteria, & old RBCs from blood
The hepatocytes of liver produce __ & do what? bile - store glucose as glycogen & fat soluble vitamins & detoxify body
Roll of gallbladder Stores concentrated bile from liver & releases when needed through its cystic duct.
The major stimulus for gallbladder contraction is __. cholecystokinin (CCK) - intestinal hormone released when acidic, fatty chyme enters duodenum.
CCK stimulates? Gallbladder to contract, pancreatic juice secretion, & relaxes hepatopancreatic sphincter.
gallstones Biliar calculi - obstruct flow of bile - sharp crystals due to too much cholesterol or too few bile salts.
2 main groups of digestive system organs. Alimentary canal & accessory digestive organs.
Organs of alimentary canal Mouth, pharyx, esophagus, stomach, sm. intestine, & lg. intestine
Organs of accessory digestive organs teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver & pancreas
Name the 6 essential activities of food processing by digestive system. (1) indegestion, (2) propulsion, (3) mechanical digestion, (4) chemical digestion, (5) absorption, (6) defecation
Segmentation Rhythmic local constriction of intestines - mixes food w/digestive juices & increases efficiency of absorption.
Smooth muscle activity inhibited by __ VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) or nitric oxide
All ventral body cavities contain __. serous membranes
peritoneum Serous membrane lining interior of abdominal cavity & covers abdominal organs.
mesentery Peritoneum that extends to digestive organs from body wall & carries blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves & stores fat
4 tunic layers of alimentary canal Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, & serosa.
Mucosa (mucous membrane) Innermost layer, (1) secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, & hormones, (2) absorbs & protects against infectious disease.
Epithelium of mucosa Simple columnar w/goblet cells - diffuse endocrine
Which layer is responsible for segmentation & peristalsis? Muscularis externa
Serosa Outermost layer of intraperitoneal organs - visceral peritoneum - areolar CT w/mesothelium
In-house nerve supply of alimentary canal. Enteric neurons - semi-autonomous
Parotid glands contain only _ serous cells
Lingual lipase Fat-digesting enzyme
Protein digestion begins? In the stomach when pepsin cleaves it.
Protein digestors of the small intestine. Trypsin & chymotrypsin (both pancreas), carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, & dipeptidase
__ digestion occurs only in the small intestine. lipid - due to lipases
Major absorptive role of ileum is to reclaim __. bile salts
Micelles Fatty elements clustered together with bile salts - diffuses between microvilli
Iron & calcium absorption occurs? in the duodenum
________ is the movement of nutrients through the GI mucosa into the internal environment. absorption
What are the 3 stages of deglutition? oral, pharyngeal, esophageal
The ________ stage of deglutition takes place from the oropharynx to the esophagus. pharyngeal
Both the pharygeal and esophageal stages of deglutition involve __________ movement. involuntary
peristalsis and segmentation are the 2 main types of motility produced by the _________ of the GI tract. smooth muscle
_________ is a progressive motility that produces forward movement of matter along the GI tract. peristalsis
What type of motility helps break down food particles, mixes food and digestive juices, and brings digested food in contact with intestinal mucosa to facilitate absorption? segmentation
Chyme is ejected about every ______ into the ______. 20 seconds, duodenum
_________, a hormone, acts to decrease peristalsis of gastric muscle slows the passage of chyme into the duodenum. gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
_______ in the duodenum stimulate the release of gastric inhibitory peptide. fats
Gastric inhibitory peptide acts to decrease ________ of gastric muscle slows the passage of _____ into the duodenum. peristalsis, chyme
Intestinal peristalsis is regulated in part by intrinsic _______ reflexes which are stimulated by _________ stretch, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK)
Polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by ________ to form disaccharides. amylases
Protein compounds are made up of twisted chains of ________. amino acids
Pancreatic _______ is the main fat-digesting enzyme. lipase
_______ increases pH for optimum amylase function. sodium bicarbonate
Intrinsic factor, which is secreted by _______ cells, protects vitamin ____ and later facilitates its absorption. parietal, B12
Pancreatic juice is secreted by _______ and ______ cells of the pancreas. acinar, duct
What are the 3 phases of gastric secretion? cephalic, gastric, intestinal
The _________ phase of digestive secretion is known as the "psychic phase," since mental factors activate the mechanism cephalic
During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion, ________ fibers in branches of the vagus nerve conduct stimulating efferent impulses to the glands which stimulates the production of _______. parasympathetic, gastrin
he _______ phase of gastric secretion occurs when products of protein digestion reach the _____ portion of the stomach. gastric, pyloric
During the _______ phase of gastric secretion, various mechanisms seem to adjust gastric secretion as chyme passes to and through the intestinal tract. intestinal
During the intestinal phase of gastric secretion, endocrine reflexes involving gastric ______, _______, and _______ inhibit gastric secretions. inhibitory peptide, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin
________ evokes production of pancreatic fluid low in _______ content but high in ________. secretin, enzyme, sodium bicarbonate
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it opposes _______, thus inhibiting gastric ______ secretion. gastrin, HCL
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it stimulates contraction of the ________ so that ________ is ejected into the duodenum. gallbladder, bile
what are the three types of Exocrine secretory cells mucous, chief, and parietal
What are the three types of endocrine/paracrine secretory cells enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL), G cells, D cells
mucous cells secrete what product alkaline mucus
the chief cells secrete what pepsinogen
the parietal cells secrete what hydrochloric acid and Intrinsic factor
the ECL cells secrete what histamine
the G cells secrete what gastrin
the D cells secrete what somatostatin
histamine will stimulate what cells to secrete parietal cells
Protein products in the stomach will stimulate what cells to secrete G cells
Chief cells are stimulated by what two stimuli ACh and Gastrin
The function of pepsinogen by the chief cells is to when activated, begins protein digestion
The function of HCL by parietal cells is to decrease stomach pH to activate pepsinogen to pepsin, break down connective tissue and muscle fibers, denature protein exposing peptide bonds for enzymatic attack, and assist lysozyme in the killing of micro-organisms
Created by: 25523102