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animal physiology

test 2

appetite is controlled by what two physiological systems? hormonal and neural systems
What are four major hormones involved in appetite and digestion? leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY, somatostatin
Hormone that is secreted by white adipose tissue when lipid content is high, supresses appetite. leptin
hormone secreted by stomach when it is empty, stimulates appetite. Ghrelin
hormone secreted by colon when full, supresses appetite Peptide YY
this hormone reduces growth hormone release, which inhibits digestion. Secreted in the pancreas. somatostatin
two other places somatostatin is produced lower intestine and duodenum (HINDGUT)
The four major neurotransmitters involved in appetite and digestion? neuropeptide Y (NPY),agouti-related peptide, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), proopiomelanocortin (POMC)
which neurotransmitters are appetite stimulators? (3) NPY, agouti, GABA
Which neurotransmitter is involved in appetite inhibition? (1) POMC
as far as the hormones involved in appetite are concerned, list the slowest acting to the fastest (3 discussed) slowest->leptin// middle-> peptide Y// fastest'> ghrelin
Build up of what increases peptide YY secretion? (can cause microbial fermentation which leads to gas) FIBER
If blood glucose is too low, what part of the body cannot function? The brain
If blood glucose is too high, what balance is disturbed? osmotic balance
What two hormones are involved in regulation of blood glucose? INSULIN, GLUCAGON
which hormone lowers blood glucose? Insulin
which hormone raises blood glucose? Glucagon
Hormones secreted by what body part control blood glucose? pancreas
def. Hormones that have opposing effects.. antagonistic pairing
the brain runs on what? (precisely controlled) GLUCOSE
the liquid portion of blood is known as..(2) SERUM, PLASMA
what is the ideal blood glucose level in milli osmoles? 300 mOSM
def. irregularly shaped patches of endocrine tissue located within the pancreas... Islets of langerhans
the cells located in the islets of langerhans are either ___ or ___. Alpha (glucagon), Beta (insulin)
what are two physiological events related to blood glucose discussed in class? Diabetic Coma and Insulin Shock
Long-term damage, extremely high blood glucose, osmolarity is WAY above 300mOSM. Diabetic Coma
Extreme ___ is also an aspect of diabetic coma because sugar pulls moisture. dehydration
___ is another aspect of diabetic coma, it is the result of the body's inability to burn sugar, resulting in the burning of protein which creates an acidic environment for cells ketoacidosis
Is the result of low blood sugar, brain can shut down if blood glucose remains too low which can cause cellular damage if prolonged insulin shock
three potential causes of insulin shock are: glucose used to quickly, glucose slow to enter circulation, too much insulin
another term for insulin shock is.... HYPOglycemia
another term for diabetic coma is.... HYPERglycemia
def. When hormones cause same response in a target cell additivity
do hormones use the same signaling pathway when targeting the same cell in additivity? NOOO
def. When hormones enhance the affect of other hormones Synergism
Sensory receptors range from __ cells to ___ sense__. single cells to complex sense organs
THE SIX TYPES OF RECEPTORS ARE: chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, electroreceptors, magnetoreceptors, thermoreceptors
all receptors ___ incoming stimuli into changes in membrane potential TRANSDUCE
the basic steps involve: 1. receptor proteins detect stimulus// 2. opening or closing of ion channel// 3. change in membrane potential// 4. signal is sent to CNS//
sensory receptor acts as the primary __ neuron in sensory reception afferent (to CNS) occurs in generator potential
change in MP spreads along the efferent neurons membrane, this is known as what kind of potential? generator potential
when the sensory receptor is SEPERATE from the afferent neuron, change in MP releases a neurotransmitter receptor potential
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY RECEPTORS BASED ON STIMULUS LOCATION--- 1.detect distant stimuli examples include vision and hearing telereceptors
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY RECEPTORS BASED ON STIMULUS LOCATION--- 2. detect stimuli on the outside of the body examples include pressure and temp. exteroceptors
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY RECEPTORS BASED ON STIMULUS LOCATION--- 3. detect stimui on the inside of the body examples include blood pressure and oxygen interoceptors
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY RECEPTORS BASED ON STIMULUS MODALITY--- 1. receptor for chemicals examples include smell and taste chemoreceptors
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY RECEPTORS BASED ON STIMULUS MODALITY--- 2. receptors for pressure and movement examples include touch, hearing, balance mechanoreceptors
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY RECEPTORS BASED ON STIMULUS MODALITY--- 3. receptors for light examples include vision photoreceptors
TWO MAJOR TYPES of chemoreceptors in animals Olfaction and gustation
What are the five classes of tastants? Bitter, Sweet, Sour, Salty, Savory
Savory tastant is also known as... umami
what kind of cells are taste receptors? epithelial cells (release neurotransmitters)
The olfactory system can distinguish between thousands of odorants
where is the olfactory system located? The roof of the nasal cavity
the odorant receptor proteins are located where? on the cilia of the receptor cells
odorant receptors are linked to the __ proteins G
the g proteins cause the formation of.. cAMP (adenylate cyclase)
cAMP opens the __ _____. ion channels
two things are able to enter the cell with the channels open... Ca and Na
Ca and Na entering the cell causes ___ to occur and an action potential to be relesed DEPOLARIZATION
def. greatly developed sense of smell... MACROsmatic
def. lesser developed sense of smell.. MICROsmatic
def. no sense of smell ANOsmatic
chemical signals between animals that regulates being turned on or off (sexual) pheromones
pheromones are located in the __ organ (seperate from olfaction) the __ of the nasal cavity vomeronasal///BASE of nasal cavity
pheromones stimulate the primitive __ system LIMBIC
pain receptors are called... nocioreceptors
nocioreceptors have ___ nerve endings to respond to all intense stimuli. BARE
in regards to myelin, nocioreceptors can either be... myelinated or non-myelinated
pain neuron with short lag time and a "bright" response myelinated
pain neuron with longer lag time and diffused pain non-myelinated
def. some form of energy (electrical, chemical, mechanical, radiant) stimulus
def.a particular type of stimulus (sound waves, light waves, pressure, pain, temperature) modality
def. the conscious awareness of a modality perception
def. perception of a stimulus which is determined by the ‘hard wiring’ of the system sensation
def. conversion of stimulus energy to a potential transduction
def. movement of impulse into the CNS conduction
def. the CNS translates the signal into a sensation translation
the four types of information communicated by sensory receptors modality, location, intensity, duration
type of mechanoreception that detects pressure and volume changes baroreceptors
part of the ear that picks up sound waves, transmits them to the bones of the middle ear ear drum (tympanic membrane)
part of the ear that has the smallest bones in the body, form a bridge of 3 bones which amplify sound waves ossicles
the three ossicles are hammer, anvil, stirrup
part of ear, membrane-covered opening from middle ear into inner ear. The base of the stapes bones fits into it, transmitting the sound waves into the inner ear. oval window
two types of photoreceptor cells: 1. –Have a single, highly folded cilium –Folds form disks that contain photopigments ciliary
2. types of photoreceptor cells Apical surface covered with multiple outfoldings called microvillar projections –Microvillar projections contain photopigments Rhabdomeric
def. Molecules that absorb energy from photons photopigments
vertebrates have ciliary photoreceptors which can be divided into __ and ___ rods(DIM LIGHT) and cones(BRIGHT LIGHT)
part of the eye that refracts light and focuses it onto a single point on the retina eye LENS
part of the eye that secretes tears lacrimal glands
mucous membrane covering of eyeball& eyelids conjunctiva
gland in corner of eye that secretes a lipid substance that keeps eye from drying out caruncle
a tough, white outer supporting & protective coat. Gives eye its shape. sclera
part of eye that acts to refract (bend & directs) light rays into the eye cornea
Light-sensitive coat that contains the photoreceptors cells (rods & cones) EYE PART retina
part of the eye that is an opening through which light passes pupil
part of eye that regulates the size of the pupil iris
an eye problem that can develop, the clouding of lens, loss of transparency cataract
Watery fluid chamber (anterior chamber) of eye between the cornea & lens aqueous humor
eye problem, excessive pressure builds up & destroys retina causing permanent blindness. Due to imbalance of production & absorption of aqueous humor glaucoma
Gel-like fluid in larger chamber (posterior cavity) of eye between the lens and retina, NOT continually replaced vitreous humor
Transduces light energy into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain via the optic nerve retina (neural tunic)
perception of movement and shapes, low light, night time, most numerous...PHOTORECEPTION RODS
light sensitive pigment located in rods, made of opsin and retinal..adapts to dark or light conditions rhodopsin
what are the three different types of cones? (hint: allows cones to see in color) RED, BLUE, GREEN
eye problem, genetic defect in one or more types of cones, most often the red or green. Most common form is sex-linked & occurs mostly in males. color blindness
normal 20/20 vision emmetropia
eye problem, near-sightedness’ Sees clearly close up, blurry distant vision myopia (near sightedness)
eye problem, Hyperopia-’far-sightedness’ Sees clearly in distance, blurry close vision hyperopia (far sightedness)
what is the hypothalamic-anterior-pituitary system for stress? CRH (corticotropin) produced in hypothalamus |__ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) produced by the anterior pituitary |__cortisol or corticosterone is produced by the adrenal cortex
def. disruptive to homeostatis, such as heat, fear, change stressor
varying degrees of pain exist. __ or __. acute (short term) chronic (long term)
step 1. Stressors cause a response in the ___ by use of ___ _____ brain// afferent neurons
step 2. in regards to the hypothalamus pathway, the cortisol raises __ ___ blood glucose
step 2. in regards to the sympathetic nervous system, what is stimulated? (2) pancreas and adrenal medullatep
Step 2. In regards to the SNS, the pancreas does what? increases glucagon decreases insulin ((increases blood glucose))
step 2. In regards to the SNS, the adrenal medulla increases what? epinephrine in blood
step2. In regards to the SNS, the adrenal medulla is long term or short term? short term
an increase in epinephrine in the blood results in and increase in __,__ and ___ heart rate, contraction, breathing rate
step 2. In regards to muscles, what is initiated? movement
What are two reasons to mobilize blood glucose? 1. brain functions on glucose 2. working tissue can use it in place of oxygen when it is low
When ACTH is produced by the hypothalamus, ___ is also produced. POMC (proop)
The POMC produces two things. What are they and what do they do? 1. beta lipotropin - mobilizes fat energy
adrenal means what? on top of the kidney
a neurohormone that increases ACTH release by traveling across the pituitary. It is partly responsible for muscle contraction. Oxytocin
Created by: aeritter