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Larynx SG


Epiglottis IT is a passive moving structure. Back of tongue pushes epiglottis down, and the pharyngeal apparatus lifts up. This combination closes the epiglottis
Piriform recess Within the pharynx and is a place where foreign objects can be snared or caught
True vocal fold Fibers of vocalis muscle. Conus elasticus gives it rigidity
Vestibular fold Not used for vocalization. Redundancy of the mucus membrane. Folds on top of the true vocal fold.
Vestibule and Ventricle Vestibule is above the vestibular fold. Ventricle is a space that can take up air(between the true and false vocal folds)
Laryngeal saccule Mucus glands and lubricates the vocal cords
Vallecula Saliva is constantly being produced and collects in the vallecula and slides left and right of the epiglottis and then into piriform recess
Vocal cords during deep breath vs. phonation Deep breath: Separated. Phonation: Bought together
Arytenoid cartilages Muscular and vocal process. Arytenoid cartilages can slip and slide back and forth and swivel due to the hyaline cartilage on the upper surface of the cricoids cartilage
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles Responsible for moving the laryngeal cartilages, can be used for modified speech, skeletal muscles, Transverse Arytenodous: Brings arytenoids together. Oblique arytenodeus: assist in bringing together
Aryepiglotticus muscle Continuation of oblique arytenoid. Contracts and acts as sphincter if epiglottis is pushed down. Help assist closing off airway
Adductors of vocal cords Main: Laterl cricoartenoids muscles. Others: Internal and External thyroarytenoid muscle
Posterior cricoartenoid muscle Only abductor of the vocal cord
Innervation of adductor and abductor muscles Recurrent laryngeal (motor)
Oblique arytenoids and transverse arytenoids Reccurent laryngeal nerve. Bring arytenoid cartilages together and are also weak adductors of the vocal cords
Fundamental tone Un-tweaked tone that goes between the vocal cords
High pitch vs. low pitch High: Stretch the vocal cords. Low: Allow vocal cords to stay thicker
Adolescent boys Testosterone causes the vocal cord to get thicker, the thyrocartilage gets longer and the Adam's apple gets bigger
Thyroarytenoid muscle contraction Pulls the arytenoids cartilage forward, the semi tension in the vocal ligament is reduced, the ligament gets thicker and the pitch goes down
Vocalis muscle Has little attachments to vocal cord. Changes the length of the string that is going to be committed to vibrate
Cricothyroid muscle Innervated by superior laryngeal nerve. Makes the voice higher by stretching the vocal cord (Pulls Adam's apple out). Major stretcher of vocal cord
Coughing reflex Build air below the glottis. True vocal cords swing out the way. Vestibular folds close off airway. They separate then you cough. In newborns reflex is absent.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve pathway Goes deep to muscles and innervates the mucus membrane on the inside, innervates all of the larynx muscles except for the cricothyroid. Innervates all the way up to inferior surface of vocal cords (sensory). Innervates pharyngeal constrictors
Superior laryngeal nerve Internal division: voice box (sensory). External division: Cricothyroid and pharyngeal constrictors
Heart relation to laryngeal nerve Laryngeal nerve brings back varoreceptors from the great vessels. Great vessels estimate how much pressure is in the blood system. If pressure gets high then the nerves will tell the system to slow the heart down. It can even stop the heart.



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