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Mirando's Terms

Written by Matthew Turner.

The Ancien Régime was also known as the ______. Old Regime
The nobility constituted approximately _____ percent of the population of any given country. country 1 to 5
The smallest, wealthiest, best defined, and most socially responsible aristocracy resided in _______. Great Britain
Define "of the sword." Those whose nobility was derived from military service.
Define "of the robe." Those who had acquired their titles either by serving the bureaucracy or by having purchased them.
Define hoberaeaux. The provincial nobility.
Define taille. land tax; the basic tax of the Old Regime.
Define vingtième. "Twentieth."; which resembled an income tax.
Define corvées. Forced labor on public works.
Define szlachta. Polish nobles that were entirely exempt from taxes after 1741.
The Russian Charter of the Nobility constituted one aspect of the broader Europe-wide development termed the ________. aristocratic resurgence
Define banalités. Certain feudal dues subject to French peasants.
Define seigneur. Lord.
Define robot. Laws and customs of the Hapsburg lands that required serfs to provide services.
Between 1671 and 1831, English landowners had the exclusive legal eight to hunt game animals including, in particular, _______. hares, partridges, pheasants, and moor fowl
Define family economy. The household mode of organization that predominate don farms, in artisans' workshops, and in small merchants' shops.
An artisan's daughter might not leave home until marriage, because _______. at home she could learn increasingly valuable skills associated with the trade
For women of all social ranks, childbirth meant ______. fear and vulnerability because contagious diseases endangered both mother and child.
The main goal of traditional peasant society was ______. a stability that would ensure the local food supply.
Define Agricultural Revolution. A series of innovations in farm production developed by landlords in Western Europe.
Who instituted crop rotation, using wheat, turnips, barley, and clover? Charles "Turnip" Townsend (1674-1738).
Define enclosures. The enclosures were intended to use land more rationally and to achieve greater commercial. profits.
The second half of the eighteenth century witnessed the beginning of the industrialization of European economy called _______. The Industrial Revolution.
Who took the lead in consumer revolution that expanded the demand for goods that could be efficiently supplied? Great Britain.
Define domestic. Putting-out.
Define system of textile production. Agents of urban textile merchants took wool or other unfinished fibers to the home of peasants, who spun it into thread.
Who invented the spinning jenny? James Hargreaves (ca. 1720-1778)
What did the spinning jenny do? Initially, this machine allowed 16 spindles of thread to be spun, but by the close of the century, it could operate 120 spindles.
Who invented the first practical engine to use steam power? Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729).
Who was a successful toy and button manufacturer in Birmingham, the city with the most skilled metalworkers in Britain? Matthew Boulton (1728-1809).
Who was the cannon manufacturer that drill precise metal cylinders Watt's design required? John Wilkinson (1728-1808).
Who made a better version of the Newcomen steam engine? James Watt (1736-1819).
During the early eighteenth century, British iron-makers produces somewhat less than ______ tons of iron annually. 25,000
The transformation of agriculture and inustry led to _____. a series of of seemingly modest changes that, taken collectively, diminished the importance and role of those women already in the workforce
Remarkable changes occurred in the pattern of city growth between _____. 1500 and 1800
London grew from about 700,000 inhabitants to _____ in 1800. 1 million
By the time of the French Revolution, Paris had more than _______ inhabitants. 500,000
Berlin's population tripled during the century, reaching _______ in 1800. 170,000
Warsaw had 30,000 inhabitants in 1730, but almost _______ in 1794. 120,000
St. Petersburg, founded in 1703, numbered more than ______ inhabitants a century later. 250,000
Even in France and Great Britain, probably somewhat less than _______ 20 percent of the population lived in cities. 20
In particular, between 1600 and 1750, the cities that grew most vigorously were _______. capitals and ports
Furthermore, between 1600 and 1750, cities with populations of fewer than _______ inhabitants decline. 40,000
Shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners were the single ______ group in any city. largest
Define ghetto. Distinct districts of cities, or in primarily Jewish villages in the countryside.
Created by: MattyIceTurner