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Lecture 9

Urinalysis and Fluids

What are some causes of a low specific gravity <1.010 diabetes insipidus, renal disease, diuretics, excessive water intake
what are some causes of a high specific gravity >1.010 dehydration, proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, dye, heart failure, liver disease
what are some causes of a pH <7.0 high protein diet, starvation, acidosis
what are some causes of a pH >7.0 renal tubular acidosis, post-prandial, alkalosis, bacterial infection
What level of protein loss is seen with nephrotic syndrome more than 5 g/day
why would there be albumin in the urine exercise, stress, pregnancy, infection, glomerulonephritis, newborn
why would there be globulins in the urine glomerulonephritis or tubular dysfunction
why would there be hemoglobin in the urine hematuria or hemoglobinuria
why would there be fibrinogen in the urine severe renal disease
why would there be nucleoproteins in the urine WBCs in the urine epithelial cells in the urine
why would there be bence jones proteins in the urine multiple myeloma or leukemia
why would there be glucose in the urine diabetes, heavy meal, stress, impaired tubular reabsorption, Fanconi's syndrome, advanced tubular renal disease
why would there be ketones in the urine diabetic ketonuria, insulin dosage, excessive carbohydrate loss, starvation
what would there be myoglobin in the urine muscle trauma, prolonged coma, extensive exertion
why would there be leukocyte Esterase in the urine urinary tract infection
why would there be nitrites in the urine cystitis, pyelonephritis
what does it mean when there are a large number of epithelial cells in the urine sample not a clean catch urine
what are the requirements for cast formation acid condition, high salt concentration, reduced urine flow, protein
what is the most commonly observed cast hyaline
what is the etiology of hyaline casts emotional stress or strenuous exercise
What do white cell casts indicate acute glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, nephrotic syndrome
what do red cell casts indicate acute glomerulonephritis, renal infarction, collagen disease, kidney involvement in subacute bacterial endocarditis
what do granular casts indicate pyelonephritis or chronic lead intoxication
what do fatty casts indicate tubular inflammation adn degeneration or chronic renal disease
When do you see cystine crystals cystinosis
when do you see cholesterol crystals nephrotic syndrome
when do you see bilirubin crystals liver disease and jaundice
when do you see leucine crystals liver disease
when do you see tyrosine crystals liver disease
When do you see eosinophils in the urine AIN, chronic pyelonephritis, IgA nephropathy, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, renal allograft rejection
What does it mean when you see bacteria without PMNs contamination
what does it mean when you see yeast in the urine candida albicans, diabetes mellitus, vaginal moniliasis
what are common urine parasites trichomonas vaginalis, enterobus vermicularis, schistosome haematobium
What does it mean when there is xanthrochromia of the synovial fluid indicates blood has been present for some time
what does it mean if the synovial fluic is green bacterial infection
what does it mean when synovial fluid has >90% neutrophils bacterial infection
what does it mean when there are lymphocytes in synovial fluid nonseptic inflammation
what does it mean when there are monocytes in the synovial fluid normal
what does it mean when there are eosinophils in the synovial fluid parasite, metastatic disease, rheumatoid arthritis
what crystals are common in gout monosodium urate crystals
what is the shape of gout monodsodium urate crystals needle like
when gout crystals are parallel to the axes of a red compensator what color are they? perpendicular? when parallel they are yellow when perpendicular they are blue
What crystals are present with Pseudo Gout calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals
what color are pseudo gout crystals when perpendicular to the red compensator blue when parallel and yellow when perpendicular
Created by: UVAPATH3
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