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What is coronary circulation? circulation of functional blood supply to heart muscle
AV bundles and purkinje fibers fire in a min 20-35x
Blood enters left atrium from where? pulmonary veins
Blood enters right atrium from where? superrior and inferior vena cavae
How many times in a min does the SA node fire 100x
Right ventricle pumps blood into? pulmonary trunk
Ventricles do what? discharging chambers
What is the fossa ovalis? Depression in atrium that conected to pulmanry trunk in fetal
What is the pacemaker of the heart? SA node
What r Trabeculae carneae? bundles of cardiac muscle fibers part of the hearts conduction system
What r the 2 layers of the pericardium Parietal-internal serous fibrous -visceral-lines surface of heart
a flattened T wave indicates what cardiac ischemia
a prolonged P-Q wave on a EKG indicates what blockage in the hearts conduction system
Where does the left ventricle pump blood aorta
a heart beat is normally initiated when sodium and calcium ions leak into cells of SA node to reverse resting potentials
a prolonged P-Q wave on a EKG indicates what blockage in the hearts conduction system
an enlarged R wave in a EKG indicates what enlarged ventricles
blood flows into coronary artereis from ascending aorta
cardiac muscles cells have less what then skeletal muscles sarcoplasmic reticulm and less calcium ion reserves
heart muscles r stimulated by nerves and is self-excitable
how does the hearts conduction work sinoartrial(SA) node (in right atrial wall)->atria-> atria contract-> AV node (action potential slows)-> AV bundle (bundle of his)-> bundle branches->purkinje fibers->apex and up then ventricles contract
how many times does to AV node fire in a min 40-60x
intercalated discs do what? anchor cardiac cells together allow free passage of ions synchronize contraction and action potenials
pericardium does what -anchors heart -prevernts over fill of blood -gives fricyion free enviroment
serous fluid does what for the heart provides lubrication
the dupp in a heart beat is what SL valves close beginning ventricular diastole
vessels conveying blood away from heart? pulmonary trunk-left and right pulmonary arteries Ascending aorta (BCS)
what anchors av valves to papillary muscles chordae tendineae
what do atrioventricular vales do what make sure there is no back flow of blood
what do semilunar valves do? prevent back flow into ventricles
what does cardiac muscles look like striated, short, fat, branches, interconnected
what happens when heart is inhibited by parasympathic slows down
what happens when heart is stimulated by sympathetic speeds up
what happens when the SA node gets damaged the AV node becomes the pacemaker
what is HR Heart rate
what is SV stroke volume amount of blood pumped out by a ventrical with each heart beat
what is a heart plug and treatment? cardiac tamponade excessive fluid in pericardial space and compresses heart so cant beat right Treat- drain fluid
what is angina pectoris and treatment? choked chest thoracic pain with myocardial ischemia (coronary artery spasms treatment-nitroglycerien
what is cardiac reserve difference between resting and maximal CO (amount of blood pumped by each ventrical in 1 min
what is distole in the heart cycle relaxation of heart muscle
what is the CO heart rate x stroke volume
what is the lubb in the heart beat AV valves close and begins systole
what is the pacemaker action potential makes heart beat by continuouslyy depolarizes until it reaches thershold because K+ reduces and Na+ does not change
what is the path of blood thur heart and lungs? superior and inferior venae cavae-> right atrium->tricuspid valve->right ventricle->pulmonary semilunar valve->pulmonary arties->lungs->capillary beds->pulmonary veins->left atrium->bicuspid valve->left ventricle->aortic semiluner valve->aorta
what is the systole in the cardiac cycle contraction of heart muscle
what r the waves in a EKG P-depolarization of SA node (contraction of atria) QRS-ventricular depolarization (loss of K+) (contraction of ventricular walls) T- ventricular re-polarization (influx of Na+)((relaxing of ventricles
what tightens chordae tendineae papillary muscles
what vessels return blood to heart? Superior and inferior venae cavae right and left pulmonary veins
where is the aortic semilunar valve Left ventricle and aorta
where is the pulmonary semilunar valve? right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
which ventricle is larger and why? left pushes blood thur body
what is the 1 phases of the cardiac cycle? 1-ventricular pressure fails below atrial pressure and AV vales open-> ventricular distole->ventricals fill->atrial systole occurs-isovolumetric contraction (all valves close)
what is the 2 phases of the cardiac cycle? 2- ventricular systole atria relax->rising pressure to close AVvalves->ventricular valves ejection opens SL valves
what is the 3 phases of the cardiac cycle? 3-isovolumetic relaxation (early diastole) ventricals relax->backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunck closes SL valves-> all valves close-Dicrotic notch- brif rise in aortic pressure caused by back flow of blood rebounding off SL valves
What is the normal HR 75 beats/min
What is the normal SV 70ml/beat
what does acetylocholine do to HR decreases HR
how do u figure CO HR x SV
what happens with SV amount of blood pumped out by a ventrical with each beat
What is cardiac reserve difference between resting and maximal CO
How do you figuar End distoliv Volume (EDV) and End systolic volume (ESV) SV=EDV-ESV
what is end diastolic volume amount of blood collected in ventrical during during distole
what is end systolic volume amount of blood remaining in ventrical after contraction
what is preload amount ventricals are streched by contained blood
what is contractillity how hard the heart puts uo force
wHAT IS AFTER LOAD PRESURRE that must over come semiluner valaesopen and push out blood
what is the Frabk-Starling law state more the heart can contract, stretch, more it doese this more blood th normal can force
what increases SV exercise
what decrease SV increase in after load
what causes contractility in heart to go up positive inotropic agents norepinephrine (sympathic stimuli) epinephrine, thyroxine (hormones influx of calcium ions
what causes contracility in heart to go down negative inotropic agents calcium channel blockers
sympathetic nervous system does what to heart rate increase by exercise, stress, anxiety, excitement
parasympathic nervous system does what to HR decrease by blocking sympathetic nervous system
what dominates the autonomic nervous system PSN slowing HR
what stimulates heart by autonomic nerve fibers vagus nerve decreases HR with no change in ventricular contractility
positive chronotropic agents do what to HR go up
negitive chronotropoc agents do what to HR go down
what do introtropic agents do Speed upcontration of heart
layers of the hheart sournding from inside out Endocardium, myocardium, visceral, pericardial, paretal, fibrouspericardium
Main branch artery by the right atrium Right cornary artery
Off the main branch artery. That heads toward apex Marginal artrey
Off the main branch artey by right atrium heading to the back Posterior interventricular artery
main artery by left ventrical before branching left coronary artery
main artery by left ventrical after braching that raps around the back circumflex artery
main artey by left ventrical after branching that raps around apex anterior interventricular artery
main vein by right atrium anterior cardiac vein
branch off the main vein by right atrium small cardiac vein
main vein by left atrium that raps around apex middle cariac vein
end of main vein by left atrium that raps around back coronary sinus
SA node does what 75 beats min
AV node does what 40-60 beats min
AV bundle does what 20-35 beats min
purkinje fibers does what 20-35 beats min
what is end diastolic volume the amount of blood that collects in the ventrical during diastole
what is end systolic volume the amount of blood that collects in the ventrical after contraction
what is preload the degree of strecth of cardiac muscle before contracts
what are 3 factors that enhance contractility Ca+, glucogon, thyroine
the p wave indicates what in the heart atrial depolararization which is the spread of impulse from SA node over atria
what is atrial depolarization spread of impulse from SA node over atria
QRS wave indicates what in the heart ventricular depolarization which is the spread of impulse thru ventricals
what is ventricular depolarization spread of impulse thru ventricals
what T wave indicates what in the heart ventricular repolarization
Lub sound in heart represents what closing of atrioventricular valves after ventricular systole begins
Dupp sound in the heart represents what closing of semilunar valves close to the end of ventricular systole
what causes heart murmurs increased blood flow around valves abnormal valves increased volume of flow around valves
systole means contration
diastole means relaxation
cardiac cycle goes systole and diastole of both artia systole and diastole of both ventricles
Created by: mbruckman03



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