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Infrahyoid Region

Infrahyoid Region and Root of Neck

QuestionAnswer
Describe Platysma Muscle Goes from body of mandible down to the chest region. contract: It opens mouth
Anterior Triangle contents All of the visceral things: Thyroid gland, trachea, thyroid cartilage and esophagus
Muscular Triangle contents Deep muscles and accessory nerve
Posterior Triangle boundaries Posterior border of SCM, clavicle and anterior border of trapezius
Where fossa does cancer spread from lung or breast? Supraclavicular fossa
What happens to heart rate when you massage the carotid bulb? Drops the heart rate
Contents of carotid sheath Internal jugular laterally, vagus, Common/Internal Carotid medially
Describe Omohyoid muscle Infrahyoid strap muscle. Most lateral of hyoid bone. Lifts the shoulder blade. Attached at supraclavicular notch. Recruited when choking
Describe action of thyrohyoid membrane Suspens the thyroid cartilage from the hyoid
Describe the Ansa Cervicalis Innervates omohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles. Embedded in anterior wall of carotid sheath. Comes from C1-C3
Investing layer of fascia Covers all of the muscles on the outside
Pretracheal layer of fascia One layer goes around strap muscles. Other layer goes around thyroid gland, trachea etc
Retropharyngeal space From base of skull to diaphragm. Space between the buccopharyngeal and prevertebral layers of fascia
Alar fascia Subdivision of buccopharyngeal facia. Comes and helps form the carotid sheath
Thyroid blood supply and pyramidal lobe Blood supply comes from the periphery (It can be divided without affect on function). Pyramidal lobe is tongue tissue going up toward hyoid bone and is a remnant of embryologic development.
What mediastinum can parathyroid disease be located? Hyperparathyroidism or tumor can be in superior mediastinum
Trachea rupture You can have subcutaneous emphysema all around the neck tissue. Air can communicate with face, neck and chest. Infection can spread along facial planes into retropharyngeal space
Carotid injuries Zone 2 injury is usually survivable. Ausculation of carotid and heart mumurs: Important area for assessing penetrating neck trauma. Internal carotid has no branches
Carotid sinus Contains pressoreceptors to monitor blood pressure. Innervated by glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve
Branches of subclavian Vertebral, Internal Thoracic, Thyrocervical, Costocervical and Dorsal Scapular
Costocervical artery branches Superior intercostal and deep cervical artery
Thyrocervical artery branches Transverse cervical, inferior thyroid and suprascapular
Vagus nerve innervation Motor and sensory to larynx
Superior laryngeal nerve External branch: motor to cricothyroid muscle, Internal branch. Branches off carotid
Superior thyroid artery Comes off of external carotid and supplies upper poles of thyroid
What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome (MEN II)? One reccurent laryngeal nerve is not reccurent and just comes off at a right angle and goes into the cricothyroid muscle
Function of Scalene muscles Mostly flex the neck. When you contract the muscle it lifts up on the rib cage to aid in inspiration
What happens if you accidentally numb the phrenic nerve? Leads to shortness of breath
What ganglion can a broken clavicle damage? Stellate ganglion, inferior sympathetic cervical ganglion. This causes disruption with ipsilateral symptons. (Sympathetic regulates blood flow)
Where does cancer of thyroid tend to spread? Tracheoesophageal groove
Zenker's Diverticulum Outpouching defects at level of circopharyngeus and esophagus. Tend to retain chewed but undigested food
Branchial Cyst Betwen internal and external carotid artery where the glossopharyngeal nerve goes. If it gets inflamed and irritates the nerve, you can have glossopharyngeal nerve palsy