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Effective Speaking

midterm

QuestionAnswer
The principle muscle involved with inhalation? The diaphragm.
The structure of the lungs are made up of? Bronchioles and clusters of tiny air sacs ( Alveoli)
The right lung is somewhat larger than the left, and has three main divisions or lobes. The left lung only has two lobes and a deep notch on its under surface. Why is that? The left lung lies under the heart making it smaller than the right and why it only has two lobes and the notch is so the heart can fit in the rib cage.
Breathing made possible by changes of air pressure within the what? The thorax.
The diaphragm can serve to influence the outflow of breath, therefore, only to extent that its degree and rate rate of relaxation can be controlled to balance the upward pressure against it from? The action of the abdominal muscles.
The direct need for oxygen in the metabolism of the body, there are certain uses made, what? Fundamental life processes: sneezing, sobbing and coughing.
Differences Between Breathing for speech and Biological Breathing: #1 1. The most important difference is in the control of exhalation, when outgoing breath is used to sustain tone.
Differences Between Breathing for speech and Biological Breathing: #2 Another difference lies in the fact that for certain types of speaking, breathing must be deeper and fuller than for ordinary life purposes
Differences Between Breathing for speech and Biological Breathing: #3 Finally, when speech is being produced, the entire rhythm of breathing is quite different of that observed in ordinary biological breathing. The rhythm of breathing to sustain life is smooth regular and periodic averaging about 15 to 20 breaths per muscle
For speech however, the rhythm of breathing is largely determined, always, within certain limits prescribed by biological necessity, by rhythm of thinking. That is... Each thoughtgrouping centers around a single idea image or concept which we wish to express. Appropriate words or phrases are chosen to express that single thought until it is uttered as a vocal unit then there is a pause and we pass to a new thoughtgroup
For speech purposes, a type of breathing is desired which will provide for: #1 An adequate movement of air with a minimum effort.
For speech purposes, a type of breathing is desired which will provide for: #2 An inhalation that can be accomplished quickly and silently.
For speech purposes, a type of breathing is desired which will provide for: #3 A sensitive and responsive control over the outgoing breath.
For speech purposes, a type of breathing is desired which will provide for: #4 A minimum of interference with the voice-producing mechanism in the throat.
Speech can be produced by any method of breathing that serves merely to draw air into the lungs and expel it under pressure, there is evidence to indicate that the foregoing requirements can be met most adequately if the majority activity is concentrated In the diaphragm, and the lower ribs, with the diaphragm playing major role
The three principal resonators of the voice are the: 1. pharynx (part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx or voice box.) 2. The mouth 3. Nasal Passages
Emphasis Implies the process of calling attention to something. Stress to a word or phrase to make it stand out.
Variety of time and rate Usually applied to speech as rate and tempo. The average English speaking rate is 155 to 160 words per minute.
Duration and Pause Most common forms of emphasis. Duration implied with sound; Pause amount of time between sounds/beats
Variety of Force Most obvious; most crude form of emphasis
Variety of Pitch Based on Inflections: downward slide/ falling inflection upward slide/ rising inflection double inflection or circumflex
Inflection This is a continuous pitch change during the utterance of sound
The interval or Step This is a vocal leap, as it were executed between tones. ALSO A COMMON FORM OF EMPHASIS
Key Used to designate the normal or habitual pitch level of an individual speech.
Range The limits within which the speaker's voice is confined as he varies the pitch from the lowest to the highest tones
Variety of Quality or Timbre A variation of quality is the one form of emphasis most effective in revealing the emotional states of the speaker.
Causes of Monotony: 1. Unresponsive vocal mechanism 2. Lack of Sensory Discrimination 3. Lack f discrimination in thinking 4. Emotional repressions
Two Approaches in Vocal Training: 1.Develop a flexible, responsive vocal mechanism 2. Develop an Alert, Discrimination Mind and a sensitive sympathetic outlook on life.
Vowels are defined as sonorous speech sounds produced by relatively open and unobstructed throat and mouth passageways.
Consonants are made up of less sonority and more noise elements, a greater degree of obstruction is imposed upon the outgoing tone.
Created by: 726219096