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immune and respirato

ch 21 and 22

What is the 1st line of defense? skin, mucous membranes, and their secretions
What is the 2nd line of defense? White blood cells (phagocytes and T cells) they recognize, attack and eat foreign particles.
Which cells do not contribute to immunity? NK- natural killer cells
macrophage phagocyte produced from monocyte, important in inflammatory response
inflammatory response phagocytes produce cytokines that limit inflammation and begin healing
inflammatory chemical histamine
inate defenses skin and mucosa, phagocytes, nk cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, fever
adaptive defenses humoral and cellular immunity
nonspecific immunity inate defenses
specific immunity humoral: B cells cellular: T cells
clonal selection B cells divide after being stimulated by antigen. make plasma and memory cells
complete antigens substances with both immunogenicity and reactivity stimulates an immune response and reacts with the products of that response
incomplete antigen unable to cause immune response by themselves, but can if bound to body proteins
B cells white blood cells that produce antibodies
T cells thymus cells that produce substances that attack infected cells
Where do B cells originate? Bone Marrow moves to spleen and lymph nodes produces immunity
Where do T cells originate? bone marrow mature in the thymus
antibody types IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG, IgD
IgG most common, crosses placenta complement
IgM bound to B cells, activates complement, blood typing
IgA body secretions and colostrum
IgE binds to mast cells, when linked to allergen produces histamine
IgD attaches to and activates B cells
Types of T cells helper T and cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cells release toxins that break down host infected tumor, cancer, transplanted cells
Helper T cells activate cytotoxic cells and macrophages, stimulate B cells to produce antibodies
autoimmune disease chronic disabling disease- abnormal production of antibodies MS and lupus
phagocytic cells WBCs that surround and eat invading bacteria neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
agglutination clumping of molecules or cells caused by antibody- antigen reaction
inflammation response of body tissues to injury or irritation
regulatory T cells inhibit multiplication and cytokine secretion by other T cells limit immune response
conducting zone nose, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. cleanse, warm and moisten air before it reaches site of gas exchange
metabolic reason for respiration carbon dioxide
speech production respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation
respiratory membrane gas exchange occurs between air on the alveolar side and the blood on the capillary side. alveolar side thin- diffusion
transpulmonary pressure pressure difference from w/in pleural cavity, keeps lungs inflated
asthma attack bronchial tubes spasm and narrow, tight chest, SOB body doesnt use air efficiently because trying to expand chest
Boyle's Law relationship between pressure and volume of gas at a constant temperature. volume increase, pressure decreases
Henry's Law at a given temperature, solubility of gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
infant respiratory distress syndrome lung condition of premature babies, tachypnea and resp grunting, lack of surfactant
Dalton's Law total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to sum of all p1+p2+p3
What is the most important respiratory chemical? carbon dioxide
larynx voice box, passage for air between pharynx and trachea, contains vocal cords
pharynx throat passage for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
epiglottis lid that covers larynx when swallowing to prevent food in the airway
surfactant decreases surface tension in the alveoli, allows lungs to expand
residual volume volume of air remaining in the lungs after max forced exhalation 1200ml
What is the difference between natural killer cells and cytotoxic cells? They use same mechanisms but NK cells do not look for foreign antigens, they search for other abnormalities
negative respiratory pressure lower than atmospheric pressure
positive respiratory pressure greater than atmospheric pressure
zero respiratory pressure equal to atmospheric pressure
5 tasks of immune system recognition lymphocyte selection lymphocyte activation destruction of foreign substance memorization
pulmonary ventilation inspiration and expiration
external respiration gas exchange between lungs and blood
gas transport distributing oxygen to body, collecting CO2 and returning to lungs
internal respiration gas exchange between blood, interstitial fluids, and the cells. cellular respiration generates energy
tidal volume 500ml amount of air inhaled during normal breathing
inspiratory reserve volume IRV the additional air that can be forcibly inhaled
expiratory reserve volume ERV 1200ml additional air that can be forcibly exhaled
residual volume RV 1200ml volume of air remaining in the lungs after ERV is gone
Total Lung capacity TLC 6000ml TV+IRV+ERV+RV= TLC
vital capacity 4800ml total air expired TV+IRV+ERV= VC approx 80% of TLC
inspiratory capacity 3600ml max amount of air inhaled TV+IRV=IC
functional residual capacity FRC 2400ml amount of air in lungs after normal expiration RV+ERV=FRC
Created by: jsargent73



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