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digestive system

A&P 182

Macronutrients are ___________? Carbohydrates Proteins Fats
Micronutrients are ____________? Vitamins, Minerals
Essential nutrients are ___________? Nutrients human cells cannot synthesize such as certain amino acids
Excesses of Carbs leads to _______? Obesity ,Dental caries, Nutritional deficits
Deficiencies of Carbs leads to_______? Metabolic acidosis, Weight loss
Digestion breaks complex carbohydrates into _______ that are small enough to be absorbed monosaccharides
Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate abundant in our food. It is not digested, but provides ________? bulk (fiber or roughage)
Monosaccharides that are absorbed include _______? fructose, galactose, and glucose
The minimal requirements for carbohydrates in the human diet is ______? Intake of at least _____? grams is necessary An average diet includes _____? grams unknown, 125 – 175, 200-300
The most common dietary lipids are fats called ____? triglycerides
Excesses fats leads to_______? Obesity Increased serum cholesterol Increased risk of heart diseases
Deficiencies of fat lead to ______?
Lipids in foods are _______? (3) phospholipids, cholesterol and most commonly, fats (triglycerides)
The American Heart Association advises that the diet not exceed ___% of total daily calories from fat 30
The waste product of protein metabolism is ______? urea
Excesses lead to _____? Deficiencies lead to: _____? obesity; Extreme weight loss Muscle wasting Anemia Growth retardation
Proteins contain a high percentage of _____? nitrogen
Typically protein intake is ____% of a person’s diet Most people should consume _____ grams a day 10; 60-150
Vitamins are classified on the basis of solubility as either fat- soluble_______? or water-soluble _____? (vitamins A, D, E, and K), (the B vitamins and vitamin C)
Submucosal plexus – controls _____? secretions
Myenteric plexus – controls_____? gastrointestinal motility
Pepsinogen is? From the chief cells. Inactive form of pepsin so it doesn’t split our stomach protiens
Pepsin is? From pepsinogen in the presence of hydrochloric acid Is a protein splitting enzyme
Hydrochloric acid From the parietal cells. Needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin
Mucus in stomach is? From the goblet cells and the mucous glands. Protective to stomach wall
Intrinsic factor? From the parietal cells. Is required for vitamin B12 absorption- RBC production
_____? stimulates gastric glands to release more gastric juice gastrin
The stomach does absorb: Some water Certain salts Certain lipid-soluble drugs Alcohol
Pancreatic_____? – splits glycogen into disaccharides amylase
Pancreatic ______? – breaks down triglycerides lipase
______? (3) – digest proteins in small intestine from the pancreus Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
_____? – digest nucleic acids Nucleases
______? – make pancreatic juice alkaline Bicarbonate ions
Created by: 701735402