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17/18th cent Monarch


What caused the Glorious Revolution? James II was pro Catholic and suspended laws when he felt like it Parliament asked William III of Orange and Mary to come take the throne which they did with no bloodshed THEY WERE FORCED TO SIGN THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS IN 1689
What are the nine features of an absolute monarch? divine right large standing army very high taxes opulence to display power expansionist policies politics more important than religion curtailment of nobles power patrons of the arts organized gov. bureaucracy
Who were the Stuart Monarchs? James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne
How did James I annoy Parliament? tried to rule as an absolute monarch favoritism for monarchs creative taxation of the people w/o consulting Parliament
How did Charles I annoy Parliament? Dismissed them until the Scots rebellion in 1640 Used ship money and thorough as sources of revenue w/o consent of Parliament
What was the English Civil War? Who won? Cavaliers (supporters of Charles I) v. Roundheads (supporters of Parliament, Puritans, and Cromwell). The Roundheads won, executed Charles I and established a Commonwealth under Orwell
What was the Restoration? Charles II restored to the throne after the Commonwealth in 1660
What was important about the English Bill of Rights? Power to purse for Parliament No standing army w/o approval from Parl Freedom of speech Parl cannot be dismissed w/o its consent right to bear arms influenced American Bill of Rights
Who was Part of the Hanover Dynasty? George I, George II, and George III
How did the South Sea Fiasco boost the career of Robert Walpole? Similar to the Mississippi Bubble with failed stocks, he fixed the problem and became the first Prime Minister of England
What were some issues with Parliamentary representation and how did people react to them? House of Commons controlled by wealthy families Rotten boroughs American Revolution (taxation w/o representation) Cato's Letters and Yorkshire Association Movement called for reforms
What were the Whigs and the Tories? Whigs were pro Parliament and Tories were pro-monarch
Who were in the Bourbon Dynasty? Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, and Louis XV
What was the Fronde and why was it important? Rebellion of the nobles against Louis XIV and regent Mazarin taught Louis XIV to find ways to keep the nobles happy
Who were Louis XIV's two teachers who emphasized the importance of divine right and the Callican liberties? Mazarin and Bishop Bosseut
How did Louis XIV promote his divine right and supreme authority as monarch of France? "L'etat, c'est moi" called himself the Sun King Versailles
How did Louis XIV curtail the power of the nobles? made them stay in Versailles and spend their money
What were the two goals of all of Louis XIV's wars? Expand territory and protect borders
How successful were Louis XIV's wars? Poor because other countries formed alliances to protect the balance of power
What were Louis XIV's religious policies? not tolerant of Huguenots revoked Edict of Nantes enforced Ad Sacram Sedum (papal bull outlawing Jansetism)
How did Louis XIV compare to Louis XV? Louis XV was so much weaker
How did Louis XV reduce the power of the nobles? gave the parlements their traditional right to "veto" laws
What was the importance of the Mississippi Bubble? stock speculation scandal during Louis XV's reign associated with John Law messed with French economy and caused distrust of paper money
What was the political set-up of the Netherlands? Republic, tolerant of religions lots of civil liberties stadtholder took control during wars
Why was the Netherlands so prosperous during the 16th and 17th centuries? shipping cheap grain from Baltic BANKING controlled spice colonies in E Indies
Why did the Netherlands' prosperity decline in the 18th century? countries began to ship directly to eachother
What dynasty ruled the Austrian Empire? Hapsburgs
Why was it hard to govern the Hapsburg Austrian Empire? Lots of nationalities uppity Magyars (Hungarian nobles)
What caused the War of Austrian Succession? Pragmatic Sanction- allowed Maria Theresa to inherit Austria Frederick II of Prussia invaded Silesia other countries joined b/c Frederick had upset the balance of power Fred kept the city but MT kept Austria
Who was in the Hohenzollern Dynasty? Prussian leaders Elector Fred Will I, Fred Will I, Will I, and Fred II
Why was elector Frederick William important? taxed Prussians to enlarge the military not a king
Why was King Frederick I important? helped HRE during War of Austrian Succession became king of Prussia
Why was King Frederick William I important? made Prussian army and military SUPER organized
Why was Frederick II important? Frederick the Great used the military his ancestors made and made war in Europe
Who allied with who during the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756? Great Britain and Prussia v. Russia, Austria, and France
What were the causes/ effects of the Seven Years' War? Cause: Frederick the Great invaded Saxony effects: European powers became involved b/c of balance of power colonies joined ended w/ Treaty of Paris 1763 Great Britain most important country
How did Prussia survive the Seven Years' War? Czar Peter III of Russia GB economy/finances
How did the set-up of the Polish sejm make it difficult to govern the country? liberum veto made everyone have to vote for against something for it to be passed
Why was King John Sobieski III important? He was the last Polish-born king Helped at the Siege of Vienna by the Ottomans
What dynasty was Peter the Great part of? Romanov Dynasty
What was the theme of Peter the Great's monarchy? Westernization
How did Peter the Great curtail the power of the Boyars? Beard Tax Sleeve-cutting Table of Ranks
How did Peter the Great curtail the power of the streltsy? Table of Ranks Brutal response to rebellion
How did Peter the Great curtail the power of the Church? got rid of patriarch established a symod (council) headed by a layman Not liked by the OLD BELIEVERS made the church part of the government
What were the causes and effects of the Great Norther War? Peter attacked Sweden (led by Charles XII) in order to establish a warm water port on the Baltic Russia won
What were the benefits of mercantilism? wealth is measured in gold and silver wealth is finite wealth must be taken from others colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country more exports than imports rivalry b/t France, GB and Spain
What was triangular trade? slaves from Africa to America raw materials from America to Europe manufactured goods from Europe to Africa and the Americas
Why did the European colonists think they needed slaves? labor shortage
What was the flota system? Spain had three ports in their colonies that they traded with twice a year that didn't produce enough goods for the colonists and caused smuggling
What is the significance in the War of Jenkins' Ear? Argument over trading rights in the colonies b/t Spain and GB