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anatomy midterm study stack

anatomy is about structure and physiology is function of organism true
study of structures seen with naked eye gross anatomy
complex to simplest organism hierachy tissues-cells-organelles-molecules
body maintain stable internal conditions homeostasis
stable internal temp. maintained by mechanism: negative feedback loop
beneficial pos feedback blood clotting
anatomical position in a stancs which person stands erect with feet flat on floor,arms sides, palms,and face upward false
plane divides body into left and right portions sagittal
anterior toward the front
lungs are in this cavity thoracic
not element of body sodium
charged PARTICLES with unequal number of protons ions
minerals help enzyme reactions in the body true
property of water is chemical reactivity true
mixture 1-100nm,scatters light,particles don't pass through sp membrane, and particles remain mixed colloid
pH of 8 basic
system resists changes in pH buffer
reactions that release energgy ,break covalent bonds, and produce smaller molecules metabolism
primary function of phospholipid provide structural foundation of cell membrane
proteins that function as biological catalysts hormones
cell theory says cells come only from pre existing cells true
cells that are thin and flat with nucleus that creates bulge squamous
3 basic components of cytoplasm cytosol,cytoskeleton, and organelles
one of the functions of the plasma membrane is to govern interactions with other cells true
plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids
molecule called second messenger cAMP
not a function of proteins in the plasma membrane component of chromatin
cholesterol doesn NOT have a funtional role in the plasma membrane it is only stored there false
glycocalyx plays an important role in... protection,cell adhesion,fertilization,embryonic development
microvilli are best described as cells specialized in... absorption
where can u find motile cilia? respiratort tract
activve transport mechanisms consume energy in ATP true
passive transport mechanisms are osmosis,filtration, and diffusion
flow of water from one selectively permeable membrane to the other side towards higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes osmosis
solution has higher concentration of nopermeating solutes than fluid inside cells hypertonic
rbcs contain 300mOsm/L dissolved particles.if they were placed in solution containing 100 mOsm/L of glucose? cells would absorb water,swell, and eventually burst
active transport is used by cells to move particles against their concentration gradient true
transport of glucose and sodium ions into the cell by SGLT protein is.. secondary active transport
require channel proteins to cross the cell membrane hydrophilic
lysosomes contain enzymes whose main function is hydrolytic degradation of organic chemicals
proteins synthesized by amino acids ribosomes
chromatin is localized in nucleus
glycogen granuels,pigments,and fat droplets are stored in inclusions
synthesis of steroids and other lipids occur in smooth er
play a role in cell division centrioles
microtubules are important in facilitating movement of organelles true
___are not part of skeletal system tendons
hypocalacemia leads to___? tetany
not a function of the skeletal system hormone secretion
when calcium concentraion in tthe blood is too high ___ is secreted calcitonin
organic part of bone tissue collagen and cp complexes
voluntary and striated skeletal
contractile proteins actin and myosin
small motor units require fine degree of control
not a universal characteristic of muscle striations
myofilaments and muscle become shorter during contraction false
myglobin does? stores oxygen
dystrophin does? transfer forces of musclee contraction to connective tissue
myofilaments are composed of? proteins
tropomyosin does? block active sites on actin
nerve fiber meets muscle fiber synapse
resting memebrane potential is ___ and it is present in ___ muscle fiber stable voltage,unstimulated cell
4 major phases of muscle contraction and relaxation excitation,coupling,contraction, and relaxation
partial state of contraction in resting muscle muscle tone
what happens when Ach binds to its receptors? channels for na and k open
sequence of muscle excitation nerve signal open ca channels,calcium stimulates exocytosis of Ach ,Ach binds to receptors
muscle develops tension but does not shorten? isometric contraction
calcium ions couple excitation of the muscle with its contraction true
function of Ach open na and k channels
last step in excitation coupling change shape of troponin-tropomyosin complex
endurance training muscles do? acquire more blood cappillaries
lactic acid during prolonged use causes muscle fatigue true
part of phosphagen system creatine phosphate
determines person's endurance maximum oxygen uptake
source of of atp after phososphagen system is exhausted glycogen-lactic acid system
resistance training results in muscle growth
muscle fibers not resistant to fatigue and poor in mitochondria fast glycolytic
source of atp 40 secs after max. activity aerobic respiration supported by function of the heart and lungs
oxygen debt is the diff btw resting rate of oxygen consumption and elevated rate during exercise false
nucleic acids are synthesized by connecting many building unitts called nucleotides
connects two strands of dna hydrogen bonds
#nucleotides in dna? 3
dna replication is very exact due to ___law complementary base pairing
dna replication in what phase? S
division of cytoplasm into2 cells cytokinesis
main component of chromatin dna
translate genetic information contained in dna to sequence of amino acids genetic code
when cells divide___ can be seen under miscroscope chromosomes
all body cells contain ideentical genes false
enzyme involved in dna replication helicase
sequence of nucleotides becomes sequence of amino acids translation
molecules synthesized as results of transcription mRNA
cells do not divide by mitosis sperm
rna that migrates from nucleus to cytoplasm and its code is read by ribosomes mRNA
cell replicates its nucleus in what phase g2
g1 g2 and s are called interphase
change in dna structure due to replication errors mutation
function of ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein based on codons of mrna
fragment of dna that contains info about a molecules of rna that is needed to be synthesis of 1 or more proteins gene
determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein sequence of nucleotides in dna
human cells contain _chromosomes 46
rna that delivers amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis tRNA
growth of all tissues after birth is function of mitosis true
genome? all the dna in one set of chromosomes
cellular organelles contain r RNA ribosomes
sequence of 3 bases in mRNA represnting one amino acid codon
chromosomes aligned on cell equator metaphase
all reactions of the body are called metabolism
synthesis of proteins in a cell ex of ? anabolism
most universal electron acceptor oxygen
in the absence of oxygen pyruvic acid is reduced to lactic acid ? anaerobic fermentation
cause of hepatitits virsues
all the steps of gluclose catabolism occur thanks to the presence of enzymes
in order to prevent gluclose from escaping from the cells its converted to g6p
oxidation of lipids to generate energy is ex? catabolism
glucose splits in to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid glycolysis
during glucose catabolism most energy is stored as heat true
organ cant process anerobic fermentation brain
coenzymes that are reduced in citric acid cycle electron transport chain
final step of aerobic respiration,oxygen is reduced to ? water
any chemical reaction, molecules lose electrons and energy is released oxidation
all sugars consumed with food glucose
function of glucose oxidation is? prod of atp
starting reactant of glycolysis glucose
#atp molecules produced by complete oxidation of glucose 38
synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates gluconeogenesis
substance needed for mitochondria to make atp oxygen
oxidized molecules have more potential energy than reduced false
determines the fate of of pyruvic acid availability of oxygen
acetyl-coa is oxidized to form atp,co2,and reduced coenzymes citric acid cycle
fad plus h2 =fadh2 is ex of? reduction
oxidation of pyruvic acid to water and co2 in mitochondria aerobic respiration
direct driving force of atp synthesis protons rushing back in the space btw membranes
role of glycogen synthesis storage of glucose
organ imp for metabolism liver
final acceptor of electrons from elec trans chain oxygen
organ is a structure with discrete boundaries that are composed of one specific tissue type false
not a primary type of tissue adipose
doesnt belong to primary germ layer pachyderm
less space than extracellular materal and not in direct contact with eachother connective
main components of the basement membrane that connects et and ct> collagen
apical surface faces the basement membrane false
flat sheets,upper surface of body exposed to environment, and no blood vessels epithelial
secrete heparin to inhibit clotting and histamine to dilate blood vessels mast cells
nervous and mucle tissue different from other tissues because? high degree of excitability
communication by electrical and chemical signal _tissue? nervous
normal death of tissue after completeing function apoptosis
sudden death of tissue when blood supply is cut off infarction
tissue growth through cell multiplication hyperplasia
unspecialized tissues of embryo become specialized mature types of tissue diffferentiation
cells are short contain one nucleus,straited and involuntary cardiac
forms layers of digestive tract,respiratory and urinary smooth muscle
main component of tendons and ligaments collagenous fibers
nerves respond to outside stimuli by transmision of signals to other cells
tissue is a group of diff cells and cell products that arise from diff regions of embryo and perform diff but complementary functions false
undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function but have potential to differentiate into one or more types of mature cells are ? stem cells
regeneration doesnt restore noraml function false
premature pathological death of tissue due to trauma necrosis
ground substance of ct that is gelatinous due to polysacchrides
not a type of ct keratinized
housekeepers of ns neuroglia
glands which have no ducts and secrete hormones endocrine
glands prod watery secretions sweat etc serous
development of tumor with ab nonfunctional tissue neoplasia
stem cells that have greater developm plasticity embryonic
muscle tissue voluntary skeletal
binds organs fibrous
internal memb that covers organs and lines walls of body cavaities serous
part of neuron sends signals to other cells axon
secretes substances for use in body gland
ground substance of blood plasma
involved in blood clotting platelets
lines passages that are open to the ext.environment mucosa
microscopic anatomy histology
specialize in phagoctyosis macrophages
doesnt belong to integumentary system endocrine glands
not a part of the skin hypodermis
cyanosis caused by deficiency of oxygen in blood
skin contributes to thermoregulation by constricting and dilation of b vessels
epidermis belongs to _tissue? epithelial
defend against toxins ,microbes, and pathogens dendritic
skin cancer most deadly malignant melanoma
melanin accumulates in what cells kerantinocytes
uv rays doesnt help the body false
synthesis of _ is in the skin d
dead cells at the surface are packed with keratin
burn damages epidermis and part of dermis second degree
sweat glands,blood vessels are in what layer dermis
not one cause of death due to burns loss of protein
epidermal water barrierr does? prevents dehydration
factor influences amount of melanin in skin exposure to uv rays
epidermis is supplied with blood vessels false
resistance of the skin to trauma and infection is due to keratin
Created by: amadash