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Week 10

11/15

QuestionAnswer
Remember, I am only making cards according to lecture and emphasized material. That means i'm not covering all of the notes.
Q What part of the skull would be covered by a baseball cap? A Calvaria
Q What is unique about the first layer of the scalp? A The first layer is the skin. It is highly vascular to radiate heat.
Q Name the lymph nodes in the scalp. A The scalp has NO direct lympatic nodes. It drains into a group of nodes at the sup neck which form a sort of collar by orientation. (It's called a precervical collar)
Q What two aa. anastamose to form the supratrochlear a.? Where is this a. found? A The facial a. (up from jaw) and the opthalmic a. (out from orbit) anastamose at the bridge of the nose to form the supratrochlear a.
Q This a. branches off of the opthalmic a. before the supratrochlear a. and anastamoses with the frontal branch of the temporal a. A supraorbital a. [N23, 40]
Q The superficial temporal a. branches into what two structures? What does the superficial temporal a. branch off of? A It branches into the frontal and parietal aa.(there are vv. w/ same names shadowing) after branching off of the ext. carotid a.[N23]
Q What does the occipital a. branch off of? What is an easy way to locate this a.? A The occipital a. branches off of the ext. carotid a. and is visualized at the superficial/lateral border of the SOT
Q Starting at the lingual a., move superiorly up the ext carotid a. naming the branches until you reach the pos. auricular a. A lingual a (ant) w/ occipital a. (pos) on approx same level, then facial a. (ant), then pos auricular a. (pos)
Q What is characteristic of the second layer of the scalp? A This is CT, and you will be identifying nn. in this layer
Q The greater and lesser occipital nn. innervate the pos scalp. Which is more is more medial? A The greater occipital n. gives posterior innervation to the scalp, and the lesser is posterolateral innervation.
Q What n. innervates the second layer of the scalp just pos. to the ear? A The auricular branch of the Vagus n.
Q What section of the second layer of the scalp does the auriculotemporal n. innervate, and what is this n. a branch off of? A Ant to the ear, and it branches off of CN V3
Q What innervates the second layer of the scalp/CT just pos to the eye? A The zygomaticotemporal branch of CN V2
Q The supraorbital/trochlear nn. innervate the second layer of the scalp/CT on the most ant. aspect. What do these nn. branch off of? A CN V1
Q What is the "Galea" and in what layer of the scalp is it found? A The Galea/epicranial aponeurosis is the tough fascia that connects the frontalis m. to the occipital mm. It is part of the Third layer/aponeurosis of the scalp.
Q These BV give potential for the spread of infection into the brain b/c of their unique location. A Emissary vv. pass between the inside/outside of the skull
Q The fifth layer of the scalp is the also called the "pericranium". How is it attached to the skull? A via Sharpey's fibers
It is not necessary to know the O/I of facial mm. They may have osseus origin, but most insert into the free-moving subcutaneous fascia of the face. Mm. of mastication would be an exception to this.
Q What are Canthi and where are they found? A Canthi are where your upper/lower eyelids meet. These are also called palpebral ligaments. [N81]
Q This eye m. is considered a sphincter. In what direction does it close w/ contraction? A The orbicularis oculi m. closes medially w/ contraction.
Q What mm. would pull your eyebrows in and down? A corrugator supercilii m. "corrugate" means "to pull into folds" [N26]
Q What does the nasalis m. do? A opens the naris
Q If you wanted to show your canines, which mm. would you use? A levator labii superioris. This moves your upper lip AND nose.
Q The zygomatic m. is used for smiling and laughing, which we already knew. What is interesting about the origin of this m.? A There are actually two zygomaticus mm., major and minor. This minor may be absent in some people, and has a more deep/sup. origin.
Q What m. might be considered an antagonist to the nasalis m.? A The Depressor septi nasi m., which CLOSES the naris by depressing the nasal septum. [N26]
Q All facial mm. are innervated via the 5 branches of CN VII. Which of these mm. has dual innervation? A The buccinator. It is innervated by CN V, and VII
Q What structure passes through the buccinator mm.? A Parotid duct.
Q What facial m. has the closest relationship to the pharynx? A The buccinator actually originates in part from the "pterygomandibular raphe" which is a direct connection to the sup. pharyngeal constrictor m. posteriorly [N55]
Q How many auricular mm. are there, and what is their nature? A There are 3, and they are sinewy in nature
Q What CN's pass through the internal acoustic meatus? A CN VII and VIII (ends here) [N92]
Q In what cranial fossa is the int acoustic meatus found? A pos cranial fossa
Q After passing through the int acoustic meatus, where does CN VII exit the skull? A Via the stylomastoid foramina
Q What innervates the occipitalis m.? Where does this n. come from? A The pos auricular n., which branches off CN VII after it exits the stylomastoid foramina. [N123]
Q After CN VII exits the stylomastoid foramina, and before passing through the matrix of the parotid gland, what mm. does it innervate? A stylohyoid and pos belly digastric [N123]
Q As CN VII passes through the parotid gland, it forms the parotid plexus which gives rise to how many terminal branches/divisions? A 5
Q CN V1 branches innervate the skin of the forehead, the orbit, and the inner nose. If you follow these branches toward the brain, what hole do they pass through, and what n. do they form? A The opthalmic division of the trigeminal n. enters the cranium via the sup orbital fissure, and join into the trigeminal ganglia [N122]
Q In which cranial fossa does the trigeminal ganglia lay? A In the middle cranial fossa
Q Starting with the distal branches of CN V2, what two holes do these nn. pass through to reach the trigeminal ganglia? A First the infraorbital foramen, then the foramen rotundum/round foramen
Q Starting at the trigeminal ganglia, and following V3, what holes do you pass through to reach the terminal branches? A First the foramen ovale, then the mandibular foramen(inf. alveolar n.), then the mental foramen(mental n.). Keep in mind there are other branches that only pass through foramen ovale. [N46,122]
Q Where does the ant 2/3 of the tongue recieve texture/temperature innervation from? What about taste? The lingual n. branches off of CNV3 to give general sensory texture/temp, and taste is provided by the facial n.
Q What does the n. to the mylohyoid branch off of? A The inf. alveolar n. [G884]
Q What part of CNV3 does the facial n. join into? A The facial n. joins into the lingual n. on it's way to the tongue.
Q What are the borders of the "dangerous triangle" of the face? A nasofrontal junction, and the lateral corners of the mouth. This is significant, because veinous drainage (which may carry infection) in this area is to the "cavernous sinus" of the brain.
Q Between the ext/int jugular vv., which recieves the majority of veinous return? A Ext. jugular
Q What are some of the main vv. that drain into the ext. jugular? int jugular? A pos. auricular, superficial temporal are ext. jugular, and int jugular would be the facial
Q what surrounds the parotid gland? A investing fascia
Q What vessels/nn. are found in the parotid gland? A ext. carotid a., facial n., lymph nodes, and the retromandibular v. (which connects int to ext jugular vv.)
Q How long is Stenson's duct? What m. does it pierce? A Stensons, or the parotid duct is 3-4 cm long, and pierces the buccinator m.
Q What sits in the cavum oris? What would go in the vestibulum oris? A The tongue sits in the cavum oris, and you would put chewing tobacco in the vestibulum oris.
Q At what level does Stenson's duct enter the oral cavity? A At the level of the 2nd maxiallary molar
Q What is the innervation of the parotid gland? A PSNS fibers of CN IX glossopharyngeal, which hitches a ride with the auriculotemporal branch of CNV3 on the way. [G887]
Created by: GrossAnatomy1