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Cranial Nerves SG

Cranial Nerves

Describe the diploe bone It develops from a membranous ossification and has an outer lamina and inner lamina
Describe the periosteum of the skull Called pericranium. It goes into the orbit. It lines the inside of the orbit and referred to as the periorbita
What are the two layers of dura matter? Outer: Periosteal dura, Inner: Dura vera
What layers make up the scalp? Skin, dense CT and then Galga aponeurosis. The aponeurosis is attached to the front by the frontalis muscle and in the back by the occipitalis muscle.
What separates the brain into two cerebral hemispheres? The deeper portion of the dura matter. Falx Cererbi between the two hemispheres made of dura matter.
What makes a tent over the cerebellum called the tentorium cerebella? The falx cerebri. It sweeps around laterally on top of the cerebellum
What is in the dural sinus/Superior sagittal sinus? Filled with venous blood and lined with endothelium
In what spaces can there be hemorrhages? In the subdural space or the subarachnoid space. Above the dura=epidural hemorrhage.
What fluid is in the subarachnoid space? Cerebral spinal fluid
Where does the middle menigeal artery branch from and go? From the maxillary artery, goes through the foramen spinosum. Very metobolically active structure (etchings inside of skull)
Where does the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and occiptal lobe sit? Anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa and posterior cranial fossa
Where do the veins that drain the surface of the brain drain? Into the superior sagittal sinus
How does the CSF get out? It is constantly produced and gets out through the superior sagittal sinus
Where does the superior sagittal sinus drain? Into the jugular vein
What two sinuses make an S shape? Cavernous sinus and Sigmoidal sinus
What two sinuses sit on top of the temporal bone? Transverse sinus and Petrosal sinus
Name things in the cavernous sinus? Turkish saddle, lots of smaller veins
True or False: Facial veins and veins inside of the orbit have valves False: There can be back-flow of blood
How are branchial arches similar to somites? They give rise to some skeletal muscle
Cranial Nerve 1 Olfactory: sense of smell
Cranial Nerve 2 Optic: vision from retina
Cranial Nerve 3 Oculomotor: Somatic=Moves eye, Levator palpbri superioris muscle, visceral=size of pupil (Parasympathetic)
Cranial Nerve 4 Trochlear: superior oblique muscle
Cranial Nerve 5 Trigeminal: Ophtalmic=cornea, nose, forehead, back of eye. Maxillary= palate, mucosa of nose, teeth of uj. Mandibular=upperlip, 2/3 sense of tongue
Cranial Nerve 6 Abducent: Lateral rectus muscle
Cranial Nerve 7 Facial: stapedius muscle, visceral=tear, salivary and palate glands, taste 2/3 tongue, keeps bugs out ear
Cranial Nerve 8 Vestibulocochlear: Hearing and balance
Cranial Nerve 9 Glossopharyngeal: stylopharyngeus m, autonomic to partoid, taste posterior tongue, space inside ear, pharynx for throw up reflex
Cranial Nerve 10 Vagus: palate except tensor veli palantini, visceral=parasym to trachea, bronchi, GI and cardiac smooth m. taste to uvula. auricle or ear, external acoustic meatus and dura matter of posterior cranial fossa
Cranial Nerve 11 Accessory: Cranial=soft palate, pharynx, Spinal=sternocleidmastoid and trapezius
Cranial Nerve 12 Hypoglossal: Tongue



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