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Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Study Guide Questions

Enlightened Absolutism People need the direction of an Enlightened, absolute ruler
Cardinal Fleury Louis XIV’s minister, who haltered the duke of Orleans’ good intentions
United Kingdom Gov’ts of England and Scotland united
Pocket borough one person controlled representatives from a borough(s)
Hanoverians dynasty that didn’t really understand the British system
Robert Walpole Prime minister of George I and II of Britain, who perused a peaceful foreign policy
Patriots wanted democratic reform for more political participation – repressed
Junkers Prussian landed aristocrats who dominated its army
Frederick the Great Prussia - best educated & cultured monarch who believed in some freedom and complete religious toleration
Joseph II Austria – eliminated serfdom with complete religious toleration and make 16k decrees and laws - philosophy was lawmaker of his empire
Emelyan Pugachev Russian Cossack who succeeded in turning discontent into a mass revolt against Catherine the Great
Thaddeus Kosciuszko led a filed Polish rebellion against Austria, Prussia, and Russia
Robert Clive Helped the British to defeat the French in India
James Wolfe Brilliant British general who won the two most different battles of the French & Indian War, Louisbourg and Quebec.
Cottage industry rural families made cloth for capitalist-entrepreneurs
Enclosure enclosed the many small fields as one – ended cooperative tradition
Richard Arkwright Invented the water frame which quickly made yarn
Grand Tour the tour of Europe’s major cities taken to finish off education
Uffizi Gallery art gallery in Florence
Order of St. Vincent de Paul private charitable institution that helped the poor, but was eventually overwhelmed
Marie Antoinette Austrian wife of French King Louis XVI
Robert Walpole British Prime Minister George I and II permitted to run their governments
John Wilkes Journalist member of the British parliament whose quarrel with royalty led to reform
Junkers Prussian ruling class who held most army offices
Maria Theresa Austrian empress who led political and fiscal reforms
Montcalm Loser of an empire on the Plains of Abraham
Jethro Tull Agriculture experimenter who advocated keeping soil loose for air and moisture
Richard Arkwright Inventor of the “water frame” powered spinning wheel
Andrea Palladio Architect whose classical style influenced country homes of aristocrats
Sisters of Charity Catholic organization dedicated to helping the poor
William Pitt the Younger Served King George III through the times of the French Revolution and wars of Napoleon
7 Years' War Fought in India and in North America to determine whether Britian or France would have the greater world-wide eimpire
The French and Indian War Over territorial expansion between the British, the French, and their Native American allies
Treaty of Paris Britain received everything east of the Mississippi and Spanish Florida
Pragmatic Sanction Charles VI of Hapsburg's daughter Maria Theresa claimed his legal heir
Created by: xavierip