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Later Stuarts

Charles II, James II

Charles II and Parliament Legal basis of land tenure was changed Some feudal payments to king were abolished Beginning of modern private property Parliament controlled king's income Landed aristocrats were more willing to pay taxes themselves
Landowners In control of national affairs and local affairs
Squirearchy Regime of landowner justices
Dissenters Former Puritans who renounced the imposition of the Church of England
Exclusion of Dissenters Dissenting clergy cannot teach in schools Be within 5 mi of a incorporated town
Exclusion of Dissenters: Influence on Middle Class Almost impossible to follow Puritan doctrines, receive education, take part in government (House of Commons and local affairs)
Exclusion of Dissenters: Influence on the Lowest Class Discouraged from following dissenting preachers
Act of Settlement Each parish was only responsible for own paupers Immobilized large part of English population
Treaty of Dover (Secret treaty) Between Louis XIV and Charles II English promise of aiding France in war against the Dutch (1672) in exchange for payment Louis XIV hoped to convert Charles II to Catholicism
Declaration of Indulgence An attempt by Charles II to grant liberty of religion to Protestant nonconformists in England; favor of general toleration
Test Act Requiring public office holders to swear an oath of loyalty to the Anglican Church; forbid Catholics from holding political and military offices Anglicans were given monopoly over all gov't and military
James II Openly Catholic English king; strong religious toleration Suspended Test Act
Exclusion Crisis The conflict between Parliamentarians over James II as King
Whigs Exclusionists, anti-King Supported by middle class, merchants, upper aristocracy (who wanted to be the primary power)
Tories Supporters of the King; lesser nobles and gentry; suspicious of the wealthy
Glorious Revolution: Causes Whigs and Tories joined forced against James II and offered crown to Mary and William of Orange
William of Orange: Motives Enhance European balance of power Protect Dutch Republic from Spain
English POV: War of League of Augsburg French victory would mean counterrevolution and royal absolutism because Louis XIV refused to recognize William as King and would reinstate James II
Bill of Rights Enumerates certain guarantees for all English citizens 1. Parliament's power of the purse 2. Due process 3. Habeas Corpus
Act of Settlement No Catholics can be English Monarchs
Toleration Act Allowed Dissenters freedom of worship but excluded from political offices ect
Scotland and England English economic advantages: Scots allowed to keep own legal system and Presbyterian Church but everything else was merged w/ England (gave mercantilist rights, ect)
Ireland and England England removed all traces of Catholicism, and Ireland was invaded by English landed settlers
Catholic Subjugation in Ireland Penal Code: No college degree Limitation in inheritance Exclusion of Irish Shipping (removal of Competition) No private property No voting, office holding
Bank of England Good credit, controlled by monied aristocrats
True aristocratic rule Rule by the gentlemen of England; Parliament exert power over monarchy by controlling who sat on throne
Purposes of Irish Penal Code 1. Strategic- Weaken Ireland threat against post-Revolutionist England 2. Commercial- English manufacturers>Irish 3. Social- Reaffirm Anglican Interest
Created by: 13zhang