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Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic (1640-1715)

Hugo Grotius Law of War and Peace (Treatise of International Law)
Baruch Spinoza Portuguese Jewsih lens grinder, Philosopher (nature of reality, human conduct, church vs. state)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek Microscope, beginning of modern Biology
Balthasar Bekker Against superstition and witchcraft World Betwitched
Anna Maria van Shurman Argued for education of women The Learned Maid or Whether a Maid May Be Called a Scholar
Frans Hals Portraits of Common People
Jan Vermeer Captured everyday, especially women ex. Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window
Rembrandt Mystery of human consciousness ex. Masters of the Cloth Guild
Baroque Fascination with light, interior space, colors, naturalistic images Associations with Catholic Church/Counter-Reformation, often depicted religious glory
Dutch Baroque Applied the artistic styles of Baroque Art, but depicted everyday life
Dutch Religious Toleration: Who were tolerated? Arminians, Catholics, Jews, Mennonites
Dutch Religious Toleration: Who were the Arminians? Moderate Calvinists who believed that god ordained free will to the 'saved' so that they will pick god
Dutch Religious Toleration: Why were Jews attracted to the Dutch Republic? The urban environment made it possible for them to succeed
Dutch Religious Toleration: DeWitte Architect who made all religious places of worship the same looking
Dutch Religious Toleration: Cannon of Sinners of Dordrecht & Significance Publication of official Dutch Calvinist Religion, meant that some one was being supressed
Shipping Industry Owned most of European shipping industry (carriers), as result owned several foreign industries (French vineyards); lost preeminance after English Navigation Act
Dutch East/West Companies Exploitation of Asian/American/African trade markets Only European link to Japan after JPN restrictions Est. American and African Colonies
Bank of Amsterdam Uniform European currency; i.e. the Florin which was internationally accepted Safety deposits, attracted foreign capital,made loans possible
Amsterdam Financial capital of Europe until the French Revolution
Dutch Wars: Anglo-Dutch Wars #1 (1652-54) Effects of Navigation Act (1651) threatened Dutch economic existence because Dutch were not large enough to be producers/exporters so resolved to being middle men. N. Act cut out their role.
Dutch Wars: Anglo-Dutch Wars #2 (1665-67) English annexed New Amsterdam and renamed it New York; temporary truce for Dutch Wars against France
Estates General of United Provinces Weak Dutch parliament with representative from each of the 7 provinces
Stadholder (provinces) Elected Provincial executive
Stadholder (United Provinces) Elected from House of Orange; powerful during war only
William of Orange Hereditary Stadholder, eventually King of England
Created by: 13zhang