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A&P Test 2

Skeletal System

_____ Is the study of joints. Arthology
Where two or more bones meet. Articulation
What are Joints classified by? Freedom of movement, or structure
The classification is based on the way bones are held together. Structural
This classification is based on relative joint mobility. Functional
Bones seperated by a joint cavity, lubricated by synovial fluid, enclosed in fibrous joint capsule is? Synovial Joint
Bones held together by collagenous fibers extending from the matrix of one bone into the matrix of the next; no joint cavity Fibrous joint
Bones held together by cartilage; no joint cavity. Cartilaginous
A skull suture is what kind of joint in regards to structural classification? Fibrous
The intervertebral discs are what kind of joint in regards to structural classicfication? Cartiliginous
Freely movable joints are? Diarthroses
What are 3 examples of a Diarthroses? Shoulder, elbow, carpal joints
Joints with little or no movement are? Synarthroses
What are 3 examples of Synarthroses? Skull sutures, teeth in sockets, epiphyseal plates
What are the 3 Fibrous joints? Sutures, gomphese, and syndesmoses
What are the two types of carliginous joints? Synchondroses and symphyses
Peg and socket, such as a tooh is what kind of joint? Gomphoses
What ligament is a tooth held in place by? Fibrous Peridontal Ligament
Which fibrous joint is the most movable? Syndesmoses
Joint in which 2 bones are bound by a ligament only? Syndesmoses
Bones joined by hyaline cartilidge are? Synchondroses joints.
Most of these are freely moveably Synovial Joints
Viscous, slippery fluid rich in albumin and hyaluronic acis and similiar to raw egg white. Synovial Fluid
In a ___ Joint, a smooth head fits within a cuplike depression. Ball and Socket Joint
What joint is multiaxial and has the most range of motion? Ball and socket Joint
One bone with convex surface that fits into a concave depression on the other bone is? Hinge joint
Each articular surface is shaped like a saddle, concave in one direction and convex in the other, what is this joint? Saddle Joint
In a ____ Joint, one bone has a projection that fits into a ringlike ligament of another. Pivot Joint
Flat articular surfaces in which bones slide over each other are? Gliding joints
Oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on the next Condyloid Joint
___ Decreses the angle of a joint Flexion
_____ straightens a joint and returns a body part to the anatomical position. Extension
___ is extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees. Hyperextension
___ is the movement of a part away from the midsagittal line as in raising the arm to the side abduction
______ is movement towards the midsaggital line. adduction
______ is a movement that raises a bone vertically Elevation
_____ is lowering the mandible or the shoulders. Depression
_____ is movement of a bone anterior(forward) on a horizontal plane. Protraction
____ is movement of a bone posterior on a horizontal plane. Retraction
A sideways movemnt to the right or left is? Lateral excursion
A movement back to the midline. Medial Excursion
Movement in which one end of an appendage remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion Circumduction
______ is rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces upward Supination
____ is rotation of the forearm so the palm faces downward Pronation
____ is movement of the thumb to approach or touch the fingertips Opposition
___ is movement back to the anatomical position Reposition
______ is raising of the toes as when you swing the foot forward to take a step. Dorsiflexion
The extension of the foot so that the toes point downward as in standing on tiptoe Plantar flexion
___ is a movement in which the soles are turned medially, hallux up. Inversion
_____ is a turning of the soles to face laterally, hallux down. Eversion
The ____ Skeleton for the central axis, the skull, vertebral column, ribs and bony thorax. Axial
____ Skeleton includes the limbs and girdles Appendicular
There are _____ bones in a typical adult skeleton. 206
How many bones are in the skull 22
___ Bone forms 'the forehead and part of the roof of the cranium Frontal bone
_____ Bone is bordered by four sutures and forms the cranial roof and part of its lateral walls. Parietal bone
______ Bone fors the inferolateral aspects of the skull and parts of the cranial floor. Temporal bone
_____ bone is the rear and much of the base of the skull. Occipital Bone
______Bone is an irregular butterfly shaped bone, also called the keystone of the cranium. Sphenoid bone
_______ Bone Forms the lateral walls and roof of the nasal cavity. Ethmoid bones
__ Bones form the upper jaw Maxillary bone
_____ Bones are an L shaped bone, 1/3 of the hard palate, part of lateral nasal wall and part of the orbital floor. Palatine bones
____ Bones forms the angels of the cheekbones Zygomatic bones
Bones forms the bridge of the nose and supports cartilages of the noise Nasal bone
The _____ Supports cartliage of nasal septum Vomer
The only bone of the skull that can move, holds the lower teeth. Mandible
.The _____ Bone is suspended from styloid processes of the skull by a sylohyoid muscle and ligament Hyoid bone
Spaces between unfused skull bones are called? Fontanels
How many vertebrae are in the cervical region? Seven
How many vertebrae are in the thoracis region? Twelve
How many vertebrae are in the lumbar region? Five
____ Is from lack of proper development of one vertebrae, resulting in an S shaped spine. Scoliosis
A Bone disease caused by Osteoporosis Kyphosis
is from weak abdominal muscles Lordosis
____ discs bond vertebrae together, serve as a shock absorber intervertebral
The ______ girdle attatches the upper extremity to the body Pectoral
What are the 3 types of skeletal cartlidge? Hyaline,Eleastic, and fibrocartlidge
____ Cartlidge provides support, flexibility and resilience. It is the most abundant skeletal cartliage. Hyaline cartilidge
Similar to hyaline cartlige but contains elastic fibers Elastic cartlidge
This Cartlidge is highly compress with great tensile strength, contains collagen fibers Fibrocartilidge
_______ Bones are longer than they are wide. Long bones
_____ Bones are cuber shaped bones of the wrist and ankle. Short bones
_____ Bones are thin, flattened and a bit curved Flat bones
.___ Bones are bones with complicated shapes. Irregular
What are the functions of bones? Support, protection, movement, Mineral storage, Blood cell formation
In regards to bone markings, a rounded projection is? Tuberosity
A narrow, prominent ridge of a bone is? Crest
A large blunt irregular surface is? Trochanter
A narrow ridge of boneis? A line
A small rounded projection is? A tubercle
A raised area above a condyle is? An epicondyle
A shape slender projection is? A spine
Any bony prominence is a? Process
A bony expansion carried on a narrow neck is a? Head
A smooth, nearly flat surface is a ? Facet
A rounded articular projection is? A condyle
An armlike bar of bone is a ? Ramus
A canal like passageway is? A meatus
A cavity within in a bone is? A sinus
A shallow, basin like depression is? A fossa
A furrow is? A groove
A narrow, slitlike opening is a ? Fissure
A round or oval opening through a bone is a? Foramen
What are the 2 types of bone texture? Compact and spongy
The tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones, that is made of compact bone and surrounds the medullary cavity. Diaphysis
The _____ is the expanded ends of long bones, the joint surface is covered with articular cartliage Epiphyses
The double- layered protective membrane covering a bone. Periosteum
The delicate membrane covering the internal surface of a bone. Endosteum
The structural unit of a compact bone is called _________. Osteon or Haversian system
The weight bearing, column like matrix tube composed mainly of collagen is the ______. Lamella
. The central channel containing blood vessels and nerves is the__________. Central canal
__________ Canal is channels laying at right angels to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the harvasian canal. Volkmanns
Mature bone cells are called ________. Osteocytes
Small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes Lacunae
The hairlike canalsthat connect lacunae to each other and the central canal. Canaliculi
Bone- Forming cells are _______. Osteablasts
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix Osteoclasts
Unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycan, glycoproteins and collagen. Osteoid.
bone ends retain the normal position in the break. non displaced
Bones ends are out of normal alignment in the break Displaced
Bone is broken all the way through in this break Complete
bone is not broken all the way through in this break. Incomplete
The fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone Linear
The fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone. Transverse
Bone ends penetrate the skin Simple
Bone fragments into 3 or more pieces; common in the elderly Comminuted
Ragged break when bone is excessively twisted Spiral
Broken bone portion pressed inward Depressed
Bone is crushed Compression
Bone are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened bone. Pain when weight applied to affected bone. Osteamalacia
. Bones of children are inadequaltely mineralized causing softened weakened bones, bowed legs and deformities of the pelvis, skull and rib cage. Rickets
Group of disease in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit. Osteoporosis
Characterized by excessive bone formation and breakdown. Pagets disease
What are the 4 characteristics of muscle fibers? Excitability, Contractility, extensibility, elasticity.
How are muscles named? Location, action, size, shape, number of heads, origin and instertion, direction of fibers.
What are the function of the nervous system? Sensory input, Motor output, Intergration
What allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles? The somatic Nervous System
Which type of glial cell monitors the health of neurons and can transform into a special type of macrophage to protect endangered neurons? Microglia
What type of glial cell produces the myelin sheathes? Oligondendrocytes.
What PNS neuroglia help to form mylein sheathes around larger nerve fibers in the PNS? Schwann Cells
What are bundles of neurofilaments important in maintaining the shape and integrity of neurons? Neruofibrils
Which of the following is the conducting region of the neuron? axon
Which criteria is used to functionally classify neurons? Direction nerve impulses travel relative to the CNS
Which of the following circuit types is involved in the control of rhythmic activities such as the sleep-wake cycle, breathing, and certain motor activities (such as arm swinging when walking)? Reverberating circuits
Which pattern or neural processing works in a predictable, all-or-nothing manner, where reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli in which a particular stimulus always causes the same response? Serial Processing
That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ________ nervous system. somatic
What type of neuron carries impulses away from the CNS? Motor
________ are found in the CNS and bind axons and blood vessels to each other astrocytes
Schwann cells are functionally similar to ________. oligodendrocytes
Bipolar neurons are commonly ________ Found in the retina
Ependymal cells ________. help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is ________. negatively charged and contains less sodium
What type of stimulus is required for an action potential to be generated? A threshold level stimulus
Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open? POTASSIUM
What does the difference in the K+ and Na+ concentration on either side of the plasma membrane (and permeability of the membrane to those ions) generate? Resting membrane potential
Where in the neuron is an action potential initually generated? Axon hillock
The depolarization phase of an action potential results from the opening of which channels? Voltage gated Calcium Channels
The repolarization phase of an action potential results from __________. the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels
Hyperpolarization results from __________. slow closing of voltage-gated K+ channels
What is the magnitude (amplitude) of an action potential? 100MV
Saltatory conduction is made possible by ________. The Myelin Sheath
During depolarization, which gradient(s) move(s) Na+ into the cell? both the electrical and chemical gradients
Created by: melcraft91



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