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Small engines

Small Engines Test 1

A gasoline engine is a mechanism that transforms ___ energy into ___ energy for doing useful work. Chemical, mechanical.
A gasoline engine is an internal ___ engine. Combustion.
In an internal combustion engine, the gasoline is combined with ___ and burned inside the engine. Air.
One end of the connecting rod is fastened to the piston. The other end is fastened to an offset ___, or ___ of the crankshaft. Cranpin, throw.
The space above the piston where the combustible mixture burns is called the ___ chamber. Combustion.
The force applied to the piston is a result of what? Gasoline being burned rapidly, and heated gases trapped within the cylinder, being expanded.
Burned gases are released through a ___ ___ following the power stroke of the piston. Exhaust port.
As burned gases are released, a fresh ___ - ___ charge enters the cylinder, and the momentum of the power stroke turns the crankshaft journal through bottom dead center (BDC) and into the upstroke on another power cycle. Air - fuel.
Gasoline is a petroleum product that is mainly a mixture of ___ and ___. Hydrogen, carbon.
Explain why we should conserve gasoline and use it wisely. Gasoline cannot be recycled.
What are three characteristics of gasoline in engines? 1. Ignite readily, burn cleanly, and resist detonation. 2. Vaporize easily, without being subject to vapor lock.3. Be free of dirt, water, and abrasives.
An engine with a relatively high compression should use gasoline that has a ___. High octane and burns slow.
In order to expose more surface area of the fuel to created rapid burning, the fuel is broken into very small droplets and mixed with air. This process is called ___. Atomizing.
To perform useful work, the explosive force caused by burning gas must be ___ and ___. Contained and controlled.
What are four major parts of an elementary engine? Crankshaft, connecting rod, piston, and cylinder.
What are five basic areas of engine operation? Mechanical, carburetion, ignition, cooling, and lubrication.
The ___ keeps all other parts of the engine in proper alignment. Cylinder block.
Cooling efficiency of air - cooled engines is improved through the use of ___ ___ . Cooling fins.
Cylinder blocks are usually made of ___ or a ___ alloy. Iron and aluminum.
Why are aluminum cylinder blocks cast around a steel sleeve? Aluminum is a soft metal, it would wear out faster due to friction of the piston.
The cylinder block must be rigid and strong enough to contain the ___ developed by the expanding gases. Power.
The ___ is the major rotating part of the engine. Crankshaft.
Why is a woodruff key used to prevent the flywheel from turning on the crankshaft? Because this cannot slip out during operation, holds the flywheel in place.
Crankshafts for small engines are generally made from ___ steel. Forged.
The flywheel end of the crankshaft is ___ to fit the hole in the flywheel. Tapered.
To reduce vibration during operation, the crankshaft has ___ to equal the weight of the ___ ___. Counterweights, connecting rod.
The crankcase must be rigid and strong and strong enough to withstand the ___ forces of the crankshaft, while keeping all parts in proper alignment. Rotational.
The ___ is the straight line driving member of the engine. Piston.
The piston provides a ___ between the combustion chamber and the crankcase. Seal.
Properly installed piston rings ___. Prevent blow by of exhaust gases into the crankcase. Prevent leakage of oil into the combustion chamber. Fit the grooves near the top of the piston with a slight side clearance.
The piston is hollow to reduce ___. Weight.
The sliding piston is connected to the rotating crankshaft with a metal link called a ___. Connecting rod.
Expanding ___ push the piston toward the crankshaft, causing the connecting rod to turn the shaft. Gases
Both valves are turned during the period of the ___. Expansion of the burning gases.
How are valves kept in alignment? The valve stem passes through a machined hole in block (valve guides).
Intake and exhaust ports are sealed with ___ valves. Poppet.
What is the purpose of the spring keeper and washer? To allow valves to be opened when necessary and close when pressure is removed from the valve stem.
What is the purpose of the camshaft? To allow the opening and closing of the valves.
The camshaft timing gear is always ___ as the camshaft gear. Twice as large.
During assembly, ___ ___ on the camshaft gear and crankshaft gear must be matched. Timing marks.
What are three function of the flywheel. 1. Keeps the crankshaft spinning and smooths engine operation. 2. Metal fans on the flywheel act as a fan that forces air over to the cylinder to cool the engine. 3. Magnets cast into the flywheel produce electrical current for the ignition system.
The space between the ends of the piston ring is called the ___ ___ ___. Ring end gap.
Why are piston rings are made larger than the cylinder bore? To cause the ring to except force on the cylinder wall.
Where is the oil control ring located on a piston? Bottom.
Piston rings are installed on a piston with a tool called a ring ___ Expander.
To much end gap will result in ___. Leakage.
Ring end gap is measured by placing the ring in the cylinder and using a tool called a ___ ___. Feeler gauge.
When installing a piston with rings in a cylinder, a tool called a ___ ___. Ring compressor.
Pipe wrenches are good for what? Grasping large or irregular objects.
How can a crescent wrench be handy? Can be adjusted for size.
What is a Allen wrench? Provide a good grip for tightening or removing setscrews, cap screws, etc.
What is a torque wrench? Enables a person to tighten bolts, nuts, etc, to exact tightness specifications.
Sockets are available in ___ point, ___ and double square openings. 6 and 12 point.
What is an open end wrench? Open on both ends and grasps the nut on two of its flats.
What is a combination wrench? Has a box end head on one end and an open end on the other.
To remove a keeper from a valve, a special tool is required called a valve ___ ___. Spring compressor.
Poor fuel flow into the cylinders past the valve can be caused by excess ___. Carbon.
A worn valve guide may allow the valve to ___ hus allowing exhaust leakage. Flutter.
After a valve guide has been cleaned with a special wire brush, the inside diameter can be measured with a tool called a ___ ___ gage with a micrometer. Small hole.
A valve seat that does not seat will warp and ___. Burn.
A valve seat grinder or cutting tool must be guided with a ___ ___ fastened in the valve guide. Pilot rod.
A tool called a ___ ___ has a suction cup that attaches to the valve head. Valve head.
___ or universals are used when working at an angle. Swivels.
___ handles or breaker bars allow the socket to be turned with great force. Flex.
The ___ bar will vary the length of the socket setup to reach difficult areas. Extension.
The ___ is the most common versatile socket handle. Allows the user to either tighten or loosen a bolt without removing the handle. Ratchet.
Why is a specified amount of crankshaft end clearance is necessary. To allow space for lubricant between moving parts, and to provide room for expansion when heated.
The tool most commonly used to measure the diameter of main bearings and connecting rod journals is a ___. Micrometer.
Why do intake valves usually last longer than exhaust valves? Less heat then the exhaust.
The process of exhausting the burned gases from the cylinder is called ___. Scavenging.
What is the difference between an engine and a motor? Engine runs off electricity, a motor runs off gasoline.
___ must be atomized to be burned very rapidly in an engine. Gas.
The crankshaft must turn ___ revolutions to complete all four strokes in a four stroke cycle engine. Two.
The ___ and ___ motion of the piston is changed into rotary motion by the crankshaft. Up and down.
What is the order of the piston rings on a piston? Compression ring, wiper ring, and then oil ring.
Created by: sheeba1cindy