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Cell Injury, Adaptation, and Death

Why does hypoxia result in injury loss of ATP, release of Calcium, and switch to anaerobic glycolysis
When Ca++ is released it activates what two enzymes phospholipase and protease (both result in injury to the cell membrane and chromatin)
What is reperfusion injury damage and/or death of cells after resumption of blood flow to ischemic tissues
Why does reperfusion result in injury increased free radical formation, high Ca++, cytokine production
What are reactive oxygen species atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons
How are reactive oxygen species produced? High energy sources (x-ray, uv light), Oxidation-reduction reactions (iron and copper) enzymatic metabolism, and cytochrome p450, and xanthine oxidase
how are antioxidants inactivated Antioxidants (VitE, glutathione, transferrin, ascorbic acid, ceruloplasmin) and Superoxide dismutase; Catalase
how do radicals injure cells lipid peroxidation, cross linking proteins, damage to DNA
What is the disease associated with rapid acceleration of aging Werner's (chromosome 8) google a picture
Major change with pyknosis condensation of nuclear chromatin and reduction in nuclear size
Major change with karyolysis dissolution of the nucleus
Major change with karyorrhexis fragmentation of the nucleus
Cell death resulting from severe environmental insult and not from natural intrinsic processes of the cell is known as? necrosis (not apoptosis)
Heterolysis is what? when enzymes released from inflammatory cells assist in the digestion of necrotic cells
Autolysis is what? autolysis is after cell death and is secondary to the release of proteolytic hydrolytic enzymes from lysozymes within the dead cell
Where could you possible see coagulation necrosis in the heart and lungs
Where could you possibly see liquefaction necrosis brain infarcts and abscesses
Where would you be likely to see caseous necrosis tuberculosis
where would you possibly see fat necrosis peripancreatic mesenteric fat
gangrene is another word for? necrosis
Dry gangrene is what type of necrosis coagulative necrosis
Wet gangrene is what type of necrosis liquefaction necrosis
"programmed" cell death is also known as? apoptosis
A baby born with webbed fingers may have had a failure in this process apoptosis
which process is associated with inflammation apoptosis or necrosis necrosis
Is Apoptosis associated with karyolysis or karyohexis karyorhexis (dense condensed, and fragmented chromatin)
is necrosis associated with karyolysis or karyorhexis karyolysis (illdefined clumping)
Atrophy decreased size and function
Hypertrophy increase in cell size with an increase in organ size and augmented functional capacity
Hyperplasia increase in the number of cells
Metaplasia the reversible conversion of one differentiated cell type to another
Accumulation of water results in the tissue results in edema
accumulation of cholesterol in the tissue results in? xanthoma and atherosclerosis
accumulation of copper in the tissue results in? Wilson's disease
accumulation of anthracosis in the tissue results in? black lung
accumulation of bilirubin in the tissue results in? jaundice
accumulation of urate in the tissue results in? Gout
Fas ligand is a suppressor or inducer of apoptosis? inducer
CSF (colony stimulating factor) is a suppressor or inducer of apoptosis? suppressor
TNF and TGF are suppressors or inducers of apoptosis? inducer
Nerve growth factor is a suppressor or inducer of apoptosis? suppressor
Caspases are inducers or suppressors of apoptosis? inducers
bcl-2 is a suppressor or inducer of apoptosis? suppressor
EBV is an inducer or suppressor of apoptosis? suppressor
p53 is an inducer or suppressor of apoptosis? inducer
bax is an inducer or inducer
Created by: UVAPATH1