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AP Euro Glossary 1

Glossary Quiz 1

Abbess Head of a convent or monastery for women
Abbot Head of a monastery
Absolutism A form of government in which the soveriegn power or ultimate authority is in the hands of the monarchy who claimed to rule by divine right and was only responsible to God
Abstract Expressionism a post-WWII artistic movement that broke with all conventions of form and structure in favor of total abstraction
Abstract painting an artistic movement that developed early in the twentieth century in which artists focused on color to avoid any references to visual reality
Aediles Roman officials who supervised the public games and the grain supply of the city of Rome
Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution the shift from hunting and gathering to producing food by systematic agriculture
Agricultural revolution the application of new agricultural techniques that allowed for a large increase in productivity
Anarchism A political theory that all governments and existing social institutions are unnecessary and advocates a society based on voluntary cooperation
Anticlericalism opposition to the power of the clergy, especially in political affairs
Anti-Semitism hostility toward or discrimination against Jews
Apartheid the system of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa until the 1990s
Appeasement the policy folowed by the European nation in the 1930s, of accepting Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia in the belief that meeting his demands would assure peace and stability
Arianism a Christian heresy that taught that Jesus was inferior to God
Aristocracy a class of hereditary nobility in medieval Europe; a warrior class who shared a lifestyle based on the institution of knighthood
Audiencias advisory groups to viceroys in Spanish America
Ausgleich the "Compromise" of 1867 that created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Authoritarian state a state that has a dictorial government and some other trappings of a totalitarian state but does not demand that the masses be actively involved in the regime's goalas
auxilaries troops enlisted from the subject peoples of the Roman Empire to supplement the regular legions composed of Roman citizens
balance of power a distribution of power among several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interests of another
Baroque an artistic movement of the seventeenth century in Europe that used dramatic effects to arouse the emotions and reflected the search for power that was a large part of the seventeenth-century ethos
benefice in the Christian church, a position, such as a bishopric, that consisted of both a sacred office and the right of the holder to the annual revenues from the position
bicameral legislature a legislature with two houses
Black Death the outbreak of plague (mostly bubonic) in the mid-fourteenth century that killed from 25 to 50 percent of Europe's population
Blitzkrieg "lightening war" Germany's advance at the beginning of WWII
Bolsheviks a small fraction of the Russian Social Democratic Party who were led by Lenin and dedicated to violent revolution
bourgeoisie (burghers) inhabitants (merchants and artisans) of boroughs and burghs (towns)
boyars the Russian nobility
Brezhnev Doctrine the doctrine that the Soviet Union had a right to intervene if socialism was threatened in another socialist state
Burschenschaften student societies in the German states dedicated to fostering the goal of a free, united Germany
caliph the secualar leader of the Islamic community
capital material wealth used or available for use in the production of more wealth
cartel a combination of independent commercial enterprises that work together to control prices and limit competition
Cartesian dualism Descartes's principle of the separation of mind and matter that enabled scientists to view matter as something separate from themselves that could be investigated by reason
celibacy complete abstinence from sexual activity
censors Roman officials chosen every five years to assess property holdings to determine taxes, military service and officeholding
centuriate assembly the cheif popular assembly of the Roman Republic
chansons de geste a form of vernacular literature in the High Middle Ages that consisted of herioc epics focusing on the deeds of warriors
chivalry the ideal of civilized behavior that emerged among the nobility in the eleventh and twelfth centuries under the influence ofthe church; a code of ethics knights were expected to uphold
Christian (northern) humanism an intellectual movement in northern Europe in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries that combined interest in the classics of the Italian Renaissance with an interest in the soures of early Christianity
civic humanism an intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero as the ideal and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in the service of the state
Created by: 1718238917