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A&P I

Skin Test

QuestionAnswer
1. What vitamin(s) are absorbed through the skin? – A, D, E, and K (fat soluble vitamins)
2. What are the functions of the skin – protection, sensation, permits movement and growth without injury, endocrine, excretion, immunity, temperature regulation
3. What part of the skin is called true skin – the dermis
4. Where is thick skin located – palms of hands, fingertips, soles of feet – epidermal layer
5. What causes goose bumps – contraction of the arrector pili muscles
6. Which cancer starts with a mole – malignant melanoma
7. What layer does the growth of a fingernail occur in - lunula
8. What is hair Hair is an appendage.
9. Which gland is found in the ear- ceruminous gland (wax gland)
10. What is evaporation – heat lost from the body by vaporization of liquid (sweat) from the skin
11. Where is the body temperatures control center – hypothalamus
12. What is the major distinction between 2nd and 3rd degree burns – 3rd or 4th degree burns are insensitive to pain immediately after injury because of destruction of nerve endings
13. What are the names for the hypodermis – subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia
14. Which cells in the skin originate in the bone marrow – Epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhan’s cells)
15. What %age of the cells in the basale are in mitosis – 10 – 12% each day
16. What is the area of skin in an average adult – 17 to 20 square feet
17. What is the name of the system for the skin – integumentary system
18. Place the epidermis in order from the deepest layer up Stratum basal, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosom, stratum lucidium, stratum corneum
a. Albinism – a genetic disorder when the enzyme tyrosinase is absent at birth and melanocytes cannot form melanin
b. Xeroderma pigmentosa – a genetic disorder characterized by the inability of skin cells to repair genetic damage caused by UV radiation in sunlight
c. Lunula – crescent shaped white area under the proximal nail bed
d. Decubitus ulcer – pressure sores
e. Warts – flesh colored raised area caused by a viral infection
f. Hypothermia – the inability to maintain normal body temperature in extremely cold environments
g. Melanoma – cancer of pigmented epithelial cell
h. Kaposi sarcoma – rare malignant neoplasm of the skin that often spreads to lymph nodes and internal organs. Often found in AIDS patients
i. Subcutaneous – hypodermis layer
Eccrine – sweat glands that are the more numerous, important, & widespread sweat glands in the body. They are small, with a secretory portion less than 0.4mm in diameter. They are distributed over the total body surface with the exception of the lips, ear canal, gl
20. What are epidermal ridges used for? (Discuss In details) The ridges form fingerprints and footprints to identify who we are. They are also used to help us pick up objects and provide slip resistance to the soles of the feet.
21. Discuss the ABCD rules – Rules that are used when examining irregular moles (A) – asymmetry (B) – border irregularity (C) Color (multiple) (D) diameter (>6mm)
22. Differentiate between 1st, 2nd, and 3rd degree burns – 1st degree burn is a typical sunburn that causes minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin. No blistering occurs and there is minimal tissue destruction.
2nd degree burns 2nd degree burn involves the deep epidermal layers and always cause injury to the upper layers of the dermis. Damage to sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands may occur but tissue death is not complete. Blisters, severe pain, generalized swell
3rd degree burns 3rd degree burn are characterized by destruction of both the epidermis and the dermis. Tissue death extends below the hair follicles and sweat glands.
1. Identify the two main or primary layers of skin. What tissue type dominates each layer? Epidermis and dermis. Epithelium dominates the epidermal layer and connective tissue dominates the dermis.
2. The terms thin and thick skin refer to which primary layer of skin? How do thin and thick skin differ? Most of the body surface is covered by thin skin. Skin covering the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and other body areas subject to friction is classified as thick skin. In thin skin, the number of cell layers in each epidermal stratum is less than
3. Identify the two main cell types found in the epidermis. Keratinocytes and melanocytes.
4. List the five layers, or stratum, of the epidermis. Stratum corneum,stratum lucidum,stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale.
5. What is the name of the gluelike layer separating the dermis from the epidermis? Dermal-epidermal junction.
6. Which layer of the dermis forms the bumps that produce ridges on the palms and soles? Dermal papillae.
7. Which layer is vascular: the epidermis or dermis? Dermis.
8. What is the main function of the hypodermis? The hypodermis forms a connection between the skin and the underlying structures of the body.
9. What is the one means of heat production in the body? In what type of organs does most heat production occur? Metabolism of foods. Muscles and glands produce more heat than any other tissues.
10. Name three of the four physical processes by which heat is lost from the body. Evaporation, radiation, conduction, and convection.
11. Identify the pigment that determines hair color. Varying amounts of melanin.
12. List seven functions of the skin. Protection, sensation, growth, synthesis of important chemicals and hormones, excretion, temperature regulation, and immunity.
13. How does surface film contribute to the protective function of the skin? The surface film is produced by the mixing of residue and secretions from sweat and sebaceous glands, with the epithelial cells constantly being cast off from the epidermis.
14. List the appendages of the skin. Hair, nails, and skin glands.
15. What are the two types of sweat glands? How do they differ? Eccrine: the most numerous and widespread in the body. They are small and function throughout life to produce perspiration rich in salts, ammonia, uric acid, urea, and other wastes.
What are the two types of sweat glands? How do they differ? Apocrine: located deep in the subcutaneous layer. They are much larger than eccrine glands and are connected with hair follicles. Apocrine glands enlarge and begin to function at puberty, producing a more viscous and colored secretion.
16. List two functions of the sebum. Keeps the hair supple and the skin soft and pliant.
17. What substances make up the skin’s surface film? Surface film is produced by the mixing of residue and secretions from sweat and sebaceous glands with epithelial cells.
Created by: malrey3