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Fund of Disease Ch10

disease of the Urinary System Chapter 10 & 11

Acute glomerulonephritis(cell nephron) is an inflammation of the kidneys primarily affecting children & young adults
Acute glomerulonephritis usually occurs 1-4 weeks after a streptococcal infection(throat or skin)
signs & symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include chills & pyrexia/fever*anorexia/no appetite *general weakness*generalized edema/swelling in the face & ankles/pedal*Albuminuria(blood protein in urine)*hematuria(blood in urine)*Casts/molds(outer covering/skins of the nephron/kidney cell) in the urine
The Px/prognosis for acute glomerulonephritis is generally good if a chronic degeneration of nephrons(kidney cells) does not occur
Chronic glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys that may persist for years with remissions(subsides) & relapses(reccurs)
Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually accompanied by HTN(hypertension/high blood pressure)
A sign of chronic glomerulonephritis is low specific gravity(spec.grav.) of the urine
The end result of chronic glomerulonephritis can be renal atrophy(no development/kidneys shrink in size) and RF(renal failure)
The RF(renal failure) causes uremia(azotemia)(a blood condition of excessive nitrogenous(N) waste)
Uremia(azotemia) means a blood condition of excessive nitrogenous(N) waste
Renal Failure(RF) prevents the kidneys from eliminating nitrogenous(N) wastes
Blood tests commonly used to detect Renal Failure(RF) include 1.BUN(Blood Urea Nitrogen) 2.Cc(Creatinine Clearance) 3.Cys C(CYStatin C) 4.GFR(Glomerular Filtration Rate)
Causes of ARF(Acute Renal Failure) include Hypovolemic shock * Blood type or Rh incompatibility * Kidney disease * Trauma * Poisoning
Signs & symptoms of ARF (Acute Renal Failure) include Oliguria(scanty/deficient urine)(less than<500 cc/day) * Anuria(No urine production) * Uremia(azotemia) * Ammonia breath * Hyperkalemia(blood condition of excessive potassium) * muscle weakness that can lead to cardiac arrest
Tx for ARF(Acute Renal Failure) includes 1-Remedy the cause 2-HD(HemoDialysis) until the kidneys begin to function properly
Another type of dialysis is called CAPD(Continuous Ambilitory Peritoneal Dialysis)
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is usually caused by long standing kidney disease such as 1) Chronic glomerulonephritis 2) Chronic HTN (hypertension/high blood pressure) 3) DN (Diabetes Nephropathy)
Tx for CRF (Chronic Renal Failure) includes 1) HD(HemoDialysis) 2) Kidney transplantation
CRF(Chronic Renal Failure) can also be caused by ATN(Acute Tubular Necrosis)
Causes of ATN(Acute Tubular Necrosis) include nephrotoxic agents such as 1) Certain antibiotics (Gentamicin) 2) Dyes used in diagnostic procedures.
Pyelonephritis is a suppurative(pus forming) inflammation of a renal pelvis
Pyelonephritis is usually caused by pyogenic (pus creation) organisms such as 1) E.coli(Escherichia coli/found in large bowel) 2) Strep(streptococci) 3) Staph(staphylococci)
These microorganisms(e.coli, strep, & staph) can cause abcesses (collection of pus) to form
Signs & symptoms of pyelonephritis include 1)Chills & pyrexia(fever) 2)back & abdominal pain 3)dysuria(painful urination) 4)Pyuria(pus in urine) 5)Bacteriuria(bacteria in urine) 6)Hematuria(blood in urine)
Tx for pyelonephritis includes the use antibiotics(Bactrim)
The Px (prognosis) for pyelonephritis is good
Renal carcinoma occurs more frequently in 50 to 60 year old men
The incidence of renal carcinoma doubles for smokers
The Px(prognosis) for renal carcinoma is poor because metastases(spread) to the lungs, liver, bone & brain usually occur before signs & symptoms appear
The chief sign of renal carcinoma is painless hematuria(blood in the urine)
A WT(Wilm's Tumor) is a malignant fast growing renal tumor in very young children
The chief sign of a Wilm's tumor(WT) is painless hematuria(blood in the urine)
The Px(prognosis) for a WT(Wilm's Tumor) is good if metastasis(spread) has not occurred
The medical terms for kidney stones are nephrolithiasis & urinary(renal) calculi/stones (calculus-singular)
Urinary calculi occur more frequently in 20 to 40 year old men(4 to 1)
Signs & symptoms of nephrolithiasis occur when a calculus obstructs a ureter
Signs & symptoms of nephrolithiasis include 1) Sharp severe retroperitoneal(flank) pain radiating to the inguinal(groin) region 2) Hematuria(blood in the urine)
Causes of nephrolithiasis include 1) Dietary Ca(Calcium) excess (80%) 2) Dietary protein & Na(sodium/salt) excess 3) Hyperparathyroidism
A calculus that fills the renal pelvis completely is called a staghorn calculus
Tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus include 1.KUB(Kidneys, Ureters & Bladder x-rays) 2.Renal ultrasound 3.CT(Computerized Tomography) 4.IVP(IntraVenous Pyelogram)
Tx for a calculus that impedes the flow of urine is a ESWL(Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy)
Hydronephrosis occurs when a kidney becomes extremely dilated with urine
Causes of hydronephrosis include 1. Renal calculus(stone) 2. Tumor 3. BPH(Benign Prostate Hypertrophy)
Tx for hydronephrosis involves removal of the obstruction before permanent damage to a kidney(s) occurs
The leading risk factors for CKD(Chronic Kidney Disease) include 1.DM(Diabetes mellitus) 2.Chronic HTN(HyperTension) 3.WT(WeighT) gain 4.Smoking
Women who drink two or more cans of regular soda per day are twice as likely to develop CKD(Chronic Kidney Disease)
Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder AKA "Bladder infection
Cystitis is more common in women because the female urethra is shorter than in males
The chief causative agent of cystitis is E.Coli(Escherichia Coli/found in large bowel)
Signs & symptoms if cystitis include 1. Urinary frequency(frequent urge to urinate) 2. Urgency(sudden urge to void/mictation/urinate) 3.Dysuria(painful/burning micturition) 4.Bacteriuria(bacteria in urine) 5.Pyuria(pus in urine)
Tx for cystitis includes 1. forcing fluids 2. antibiotics
The Px for cystitis is good
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include Wiping front to back after a BM(Bowel Movement)*Take showers for hygiene not baths*Don't douche unless directed by a Dr.*Refrain from wearing tight fitting pants*Wear cotton panties*Urinate after sex*Increase fluid intake everyday w/cranberry juice*Vitm C
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra
Urethritis in males may be caused by GC(GonoCocci)
Signs & symptoms of urethritis include 1.Dysuria(painful urination 2.Balanorrhea(purulent/pus discharge from the glans penis) 3.Testicular edema(swelling)
Urethritis in females commonly accompanies cystitis
Tx for urethritis includes antibiotics(amoxicillin)
PID stands for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID refers to an inflammation of the female pelvic reproductive organs
Common causes of PID(Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) include the STDs(Sexually Transmitted Diseases) GC(Gonorrhea/gonococci) and chlamydia
Signs & symptoms of PID(Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) include Lower abdominal pain*Pyrexia(fever)*Dysuria(painful urination)*Pungent leukorrhea(aromatic vaginal discharge)*Dyspareunia(painful copulation/sex/coitus)
A complication of untreated PID(Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) is infertility (inability to reproduce)
Tx for PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) includes antibiotics, ASA (aspirin), bed rest, & fluids
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina commonly caused by 1. Candida albicans(candidiasis) 2. Trichomonas(trichomoniasis/parasit)
Candidiasis is AKA yeast infection
Candida proliferation(growth) can occur with the over use of antibiotics or douches
Candida proliferation(growth) can destroy the normal vaginal flora(beneficial microbes) allowing opportunistic yeast infections to occur
Signs & symptoms of vaginitis include 1.Pungent leukorrhea(aromatic vaginal discharge) 2.Vaginal pruritus(itching) 3.Vaginal burning & soreness
A common Tx for candidiasis is Monistat (miconazole)
A common Tx for trichomoniasis is Flagyl(metronidazole/antibiotic)
The incidence of yeast infections can be reduced by drinking 2 or more glasses of milk daily
Atrophic vaginitis is caused by atrophy(no development) of the vaginal septa(wall)
Atrophic vaginitis is commonly caused by a decrease in estrogen associated with menopause
A common complaint of atrophic vaginitis is dyspareunia(painful coitus/sex/copulation/intercourse)
Tx for atrophic vaginitis includes 1.ERT(Estrogen Replacement Therapy) AKA HRT (Hormone Replacement Theraphy) 2.Antibiotic creams 3.Steroid creams 4.Water soluble lubricants(K-Y jelly)
Puerperal sepsis is an infection of the endometrium(inner lining of the uterus) occuring after parturition(childbirth) or abortion(termination of a pregnancy)
The most common cause of puerperal sepsis is poor aseptic technique(didn't wash hands or not sterile equipment) during parturition(child birth) or abortion(termination of a pregnancy)
The poor aseptic technique allows pathogens such as staphylococci(staph), streptococci(strep) or E. coli(Escherichia) to enter the uterine wall
These pathogens (Staph, Strep or E.coli) will cause necrosis(death) of the endometrium(inner lining of the uterus)
A complication of puerperal sepsis is septic shock
Signs & symptoms of puerperal sepsis include 1. Pyrexia(fever) and chills 2. Profuse(large amount) and/or pungent lochia(aromatic vaginal discharge after birth)
Tx for puerperal sepsis is antibiotic therapy
Cervical cancer refers to a malignancy of the Cx(CerviX)
Cervical cancer has a good Px if detected before metastasis(spread)
The most common test to detect cervical malignancy is the PAP test(smear) every two years
After age 30 and after 3 consecutive negative PAP tests should be every 3 years
No PAP required after a hysterectomy(excision of the uterus)
Pap tests should begin within 3 years of becoming sexually active or by age 21
A Cervical lesion detected before metastasis(spread) is called CIS (Carcinoma In Situ)
Tx for carcinoma in situ (CIS) includes: 1.Conization(excision of the affected section of the cervix 2.Cryosurgery(freezing affected tissue) 3.Cauterization(burning affected tissue) 4.Hysterectomy(excision of the uterus)
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include 1.Poor hygiene 2.HPV(Human Papilloma Virus) 3.Multiple sexual partners 4.Intercorse at an early age 5.Smoking
Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in women after breast cancer
Fibroid Tumors are benign tumors of the myometrium(muscle layer of the uterus)
Fibroid Tumors are also called leiomyomas
Fibroid tumors are more common in African American and obese women
The risk of developing leiomyomas(fibroid tumors) is 1 in 5 women under the age of 50
Signs & symptoms of fibroid tumors include 1.Pelvic pain 2.Menorrhagia(excessive or prolonged menses) 3.Metrorrhagia(bleeding between menstruation) 4.Dyspareunia(painful coitus/copulation/ intercourse/sex)
Tx options for leiomyomas(fibroid tumors) include 1.Myomectomy(excision of the fibroid myoma(s) 2.Myolysis(coagulation of the artery feeding the tumor) 3.Hysterectomy(excision of the uterus)
The most common ovarian neoplasm is an ovarian cyst
An ovarian cyst is usually a benign(non-malignant) fluid filled sac
An ovarian cyst will usually resolve with time but a large cyst that interferes with blood flow can be removed surgically
PCOS(PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome) is characterized by androgen(testosterone) and insulin imbalance
Signs & symptoms of PCOS(PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome) include WT(weight) gain & HTN(Hypertension)**Increased facial & body hair**Alopecia(hair loss)**Irregular menses**MDD(Major Depressive Disorder)**Infertility(Inability to reproduce)
PCOS(PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome) can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and DM(Diabetes mellitus)
Tx for PCOS(PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome) includes 1.Healthy diet 2.Regular exercise 3.BCPs(birth control pills) 4.Stop smoking
An ovarian malignancy is the 5th leading cause of cancer death in women
Signs & symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include 1.Prolonged abdominal bloating & pelvic pain 2.Chronic fatique 3.Anorexia(loss of appetite) 4.WT(weight) loss 5.Prolonged urinary frequency
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include 1.High fat diet 2.Nulliparity(No live births) 3.Family history of ovarian, breast, or colorectal cancer 4.Childbearing after age 30 5.Delayed menopause
Ovarian malignangcies occur more frequently perimenopausal(around menopause) & Postmenopausal(after menopause)
Tx for an ovarian malignancy includes 1.Oophorectomy(excision of an ovary) & hysterectomy(excision of the uterus) 2.Chemotherapy(antineoplastics) 3.Radiation therapy
A chemical in the blood that CAN elevate with the presence of an ovarian malignancy is CA-125
The risk of ovarian neoplasms decreases with the use of BCPs(Birth Control Pills)
The most common breast malignancy is an adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinomas(breast malignancy) occur more often in 1.Nulliparity(no live births) 2.Women with a family hx(history) of breast Ca(Cancer)
Adenocarcinomas frequently occur around the time of menopause
Common signs of a breast malignancy include 1.A hard fixed lump in the upper outer quadrant of a breast 2.Axillary lymphadenopathy(armpit swollen lymph nodes) 3.Papillary(nipple) retraction 4.The skin can pucker and/or dimple 5.Papillary(nipple) discharge
ASC(American Cancer Society) mammogram recommendations include 1.Annually for 40-49 year olds if personal or family history exists 2.Ages 50-74, every 2 years
BSE(Breast Self Examination) should be performed every month starting at age 20
A woman's lifetime risk of developing a breast malignancy is 1 in 8 (2nd leading cause of cancer death in US women)
Confirmation of the suspected tumor can be made with a stereotactic needle biopsy(Bx)
Malignant breast tumors can metastasize to the lungs, liver, brain, and bone via the lymphatic system
Tx for a breast malignancy includes 1.Lumpectomy(excision of a lump) 2.Mastectomy(excision of a breast) 3.Radiation therapy 4.Chemotherapy(antineoplastics)
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include ETOH(Alcohol) *Smoking *Sedentary lifestyle(little/no regular exercise) *Consuming sugary sweets 3 or more times per week 5.ERT(Estrogen replacement therapy) 6.BCPs(Birth Control Pills) 7.Nulliparity(no live births) 8.Folate(folic acid)deficiency
Foods rich in folate(folic acid) include leafy green vegetables, fortified cereals, legumes, citrus, bananas,melons, & blackberries
Breast malignancy risk can be significantly reduced by moderate exercise, healthy weight, and breastfeeding
Breast malignancies are more common in women over the age of 45
The younger a person is with a breast malignancy the more agressive the disease
NBC states 1 alcoholic drink/day increases breast malignancy risk by 10% >3 or more alcoholic drinks/day increases breast malignancy risk by 30%
The most common benign tumor of a breastt is called a fibroadenoma
Fibroadenomas are usually solid, round, rubbery, painless & move freely
A second type of benign tumor of a breast a called FCC (Fibro Cystic Changes) AKA "lumpy breasts"
FCC (Fibro Cystic Changes) usually occur in both breasts and increase in size & tenderness just prior to menses(menstruation)
A third type of benign breast tumor is a fluid filled cyst
Breast cysts are round, moveable, and may increase in size & become tender just prior to menses(menstruation)
TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) is commonly caused by proliferation(growth) of staph(staphlococci)
TSS Toxic Shock Syndrome) is associated with tampon use
Signs of TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) include Hyperthermia (pyrexia--higher then>104o) >Rash >Peeling skin >GI distress(diarrhea & vomiting) >Hypotension(low blood pressure)
Tx for TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) includes 1. Fluid replacement 2. Antibiotic therapy
Women who use tampons are encouraged to change them frequently & avoid super-absorbent (every 1-2 hours)
PMS (PreMenstrual Syndrome) is a group of symptoms that start 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation(menses) and usually cease(end) with the onset of menses(menstruation)
Signs & symptoms of PMS (PreMenstrual Syndrome) include lower adbominal bloating& pain>breast swelling & tenderness>Cephalalgia(headache)>WT/weight GAIN>Acne>Insomnia>Mood swings>Anxiety>MDD/major depressive disorder>Irritabbility>Hostility>Crying spells>food cravings/sweet&salty>Clumsiness>fatigue
Tx for PMS(PreMenstrual Syndrome) includes 1.Increase water intake 2.Regular exercise 3.Support groups 4.Stress management techniques 5.The avoidance of salt, sugar, caffeine, & alchohol 6.OTC(Over The Counter) analgesics(Pain relievers)
PMDD(PreMenstrual Dysphoric Disorder) is a severe form of PMS (PreMenstrual Syndrome)
The signs & symptoms of PMDD(PreMentrual Dysphoric Disorder) are severe enough to interfere with work, social activities, & relationships
Tx for PMDD (PreMentstrual Dysphoric Disorder) includes sedatives & antidepressants
Endometriosis is a condition caused by ectopic(out of place) endometrium(inner lining of uterus)
The ectompic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stiumulation and can cause 1.Pelvic Pain & bloating 2.Menorrhagia(excessive or prolonged menses) 3.Metrorrhaga(bleeding between periods) 4.Fatigue 5.Sterility(inability to reproduce)
Tx for endometriosis include 1.Laparoscopic(visualization of the abdominal pelvic cavity) 2.OCPs(Oral Contraceptive Pills) causing amenorrhea(no menses)
An EP (Ectopic Pregnancy) occurs when a fertilized ovum implants in tissue other than the uterus
The most common site for an EP(Ectopic Pregnancy) is a fallopian tube(oviduct, uterine tube) AKA "Tubal Pregnancy"
Causes of EP(Ectopic Pregnancy) include 1.Salpingitis(inflammation of a fallopine tube) associated with STDs(Sexually Transmitted Diseases) causing fallopian adhesions (tissue sticking together) 2.Endometriosis(ectopic/out of place endometrium)
Signs & symptoms of an EP(Ectopic Pregnancy) usually appear within 2 months and include 1.Unilateral(one side) abdominal &/or pelvic pain 2.Vaginal bleeding 3.Vertigo(dizziness) 4.Weakness & syncope(fainting) 5.N & V(Nausea & vomiting)
Tx for an EP (Ectopic Pregnancy) includes 1.Termination of pregnancy with methotrexate(drug to terminate pregnancy) or laparoscopic salpingostomy(incision of the fallopean tube to remove fetus)
A Spontaneous abortion is AKA miscarriage
A spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is often caused by a fetal genetic abnormality(anomaly)
A spontaneous abortion usually occurs between the 7th & 12th weeks of gestation(pregnancy)
Causes of miscarriage include 1. Infection 2. Drugs, ETOH(alcohol), smoking & caffeine 3. Poor nutrition 4. Toxins(Poisons) 5.Radiation
The surgical procedure performed to scrape the endometrium if placental tissue remains after a miscarriage is called a D&C (Dilation & Curettage)
Toxemia is AKA preeclampsia
Preeclampsia(toxemia) only occurs during pregnancy/gestation (usually after 20 weeks)
The princicpal sign of preclampsia include 1.PID (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension) 2.Albuminuria(blood protein in the urine) 3.Edema(swelling, face, arms & legs) 4.Unusualy WT/weight GAIN
If seizures develop with preclampsia, the condition is called eclampsia
Prevention techniques include 1. Prenatal Care 2. Proper nutrition
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate commonly caused by E.coli(Eschirechia coli) or GC (gonococci/gonorrhea)
Signs & symptoms of prostatitis include 1.Urgency(sudden need to void) 2.Frequency(frequent urination/mictorate) 3.Dysuria(painful/burning urination) 4.Pyuria(pus in urine) 5.Hematuria(blood in urine) 6.Painful ejaculation
Prostatitis usually responds well to antibiotic therapy
BPH (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is more common after the age of 50
The enlarged prostate can frequently be palpated(felt) by DRE (Digital Rectal Exam)
The enlarged prostate squeezes the urethra and the patient will complain of dysuria(painfull/burning urination) and urinary retention(inability to start the flow of urine)
Untreated urinary retention(inability to start the flow of urine) can cause hydronephrosis(excessive urine in the kidneys)
Tx for BPH (Benign prostatic hypertrophy-excessive development) includes 1.Avodart or Flomax 2.Cystoscopy(viewing the urinary bladder) and TURP (TransUrethral Resection(scrapping the urethra) of the Prostate)
A prostatic carcinoma may be small and initially asymptomatic(no symptoms)
Signs & symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include 1.Dysuria(painful urination) 2.Hematuria(blood in urine) 3.Anorexia(no appetite) & WT(weight) loss 4.Nocturia(chronic night urination) 5.Urinary incontinence(inability to control urination) AKA enuresis
The blood test to detect a predisposition(increased risk) for prostatic carcinoma is PSA (Prostatic Specific Antigen)
A PSA(Prostatic Specific Antigen) should be performed annually for men over the age of 50 (45 for African Americans)
Prostatic carcinoma can metastasize(spread) to the rectum, lymph and bone
A good Px(prognosis) for prostatic carcinoma depends on early detection
Tx for prostatic carcinoma includes 1.Chemotherapy(estrogen) 2.Cilateral orchiectomy(surgical removal of the testes) 3.Radiation therapy 4.Prostatectomy(surgical removal of the prostate)
Cryptorchidism refers to an undescended testicle(testis)
Cryptorchidism can eventually cause sterility(infertility)
Tx for cryptorchidism includes orchiopexy(surgical fixation of a testis) or orchiectomy(excision of a testicle)
Impotence is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection AKA ED (Erectile Dysfunction)
Causes of ED (Erectile Dysfunction) include Poorly controlled stress *Arteriosclerosis(harden of arteries) *DM(Diabetes Mellitus) *Complications of prostatectomy(excision the prostate) *Trauma *Side effects from meds(antihypertensives, sedative,antihistamines,etc) *drug &/or alcohol abuse
Tx for ED(Erectile Dysfunction) includes 1.Viagra, Levitra & Cialis 2.Penile implants
STDs are also know as STI(Sexually Transmitted Infection)
Methonds to reduce incidence of STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infection) include 1.Abstinence(no sexual contact w/another) 2.Monogamy(mutally exclusive one sex partner) 3.Barriers(condoms)
Chlamydia is the MOST common STD(sexually transmitted disease) and the number one cause of PID(Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
Untreated chlamydia can cause sterility (Infertility) in women
Chlamydia infections are often asymptomatic (no symptoms)
Signs & symptoms of chlamydia for women may include Dysuria(painful urination) *Pungent(aromatic) vaginal discharge *Dyspareunia(painful coitus) *Dysmenorrhea(painful menses) *Abdominal Pain *Vaginal pruritus(itching)
Signs & Symptoms of chlamydia for men may include 1.Dysuria(painful micturition) 2.Balanorrhea(penile discharge) 3.Testicular edema(swelling)
Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics
Gonorrhea is caused by GC(Gonococci) and is the second most common STDs(sexually transmitted diseases)
Untreated gonorrhea can cause sterility(infertility) in men and women
Gonorrhea transmitted to a fetus during delivery can cause blindness & possible death
Signs & symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear 2-10 days after exposure
Gonorrhea can be asymptomatic(no symptoms)
Signs & symptoms of gonorrhea for women may include 1.Greenish-yellow vaginal discharge 2.Lower abdominal and pelvic pain 3.Pharyngitis(inflammation of the pharynx/ throat) 4.Dysuria(painful urination)
Signs & symptoms of gonorrhea for men may include 1.Greenish-yellow balanorrhea(penile discharge) 2.Dysuria(painful urination) 3.Pharyngitis(inflammation of the pharynx/throat) 4.Testicular edema(swelling) 4
Gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics
The primary state of syphilis is characterized by one or more painless ulcers that appear on the penis, labia, lips, tongue, or anus called chancres (shankers)
A chancre will develop within a 10 to 90 days after sexual contact(highly contagious)
A chancre will heal and disappear in 3-6 weeks
This primary stage of syphilis is treatable with PCN(PeniCilliN)
If primary syphilis is left untreated the secondary stage begins within 6 weeks to 6 months after exposure & usually lasts 1 to 3 months
The secondary stage of syphilis is characterized by a non-pruritic rash(highly contagious) typically on the palms & soles and is treatable with PCN (PeniCilliN)
The tertiary(third) stage of syphilis can occur 1.Years after the primary infection 2. in approximately 30% of people infected with syphilis
Complications of the tertiary(third) stage of syphilis include heart disease, blindness, mental illness, and death
Blood tests for syphilis include 1. VDRL 2. RPR 3. EIA
Genital herpes is an extremely painful chronic viral disease caused by the HSV II(Herpes Simplex Virus) and affects 1 in 4 women & 1 in 5 men
Symptoms of HSV II(herpes simplex virus) generally occur within 3 weeks of exposure
Signs & symptoms of HSV II(Herpes Simplex Virus) include 1.Multiple painful(burning) pruritic(itching) vesicles(blisters) that appear on the genitalia, buttocks, & thighs 2.Dysuria(painful urination) 3.Vaginal discharge
The active lesions appear when the immune system is compromised
Genital Herpes HSV II(Herpes Simplex Virus), is MORE EASILY transmitted when the lesions are active
Outbreaks of genital herpes can be treated with antiviral drugs(Valtrex) THERE IS NO CURE
There are approximately 30 different types of the HPV(Human Papilloma Virus)
75-80% of all males and females will be infected with HPV(Human Papilloma Virus) during their lifetime
For most, the immune system will defeat HPV(Human Papilloma Virus)
90% of HPV(Human Papilloma Virus) lesions(WARTS) are caused by 2 types of the HPV(Human Papilloma Virus)
HPV(Human Papilloma Virus) lesions(warts) may appear within weeks or several months of the sexual exposure
HPV(Human Papilloma Virus) lesions(warts) commonly appear on the penis and scrotum in men and on the perineum in women
The primary symptoms of HPV(Human Papilloma Virus) are pruritus(itching) and pain
About 75% of all cervical malignancies are caused by 2 other types of HPV(Human Papilloma Virus)
Uncircumcised men are three times more likely to be infected with the HPV(Human Papilloma Virus)
A vaccine is available for 4 types (2-wart types and 2-cervical malignancies) of the HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) called Gardasil (3 doses over 6 months)
Gardasil is approved for males & females ages 9-26 years of age
Best results occur if vaccine(Gardasil) is administered before exposure(sexually active)
Tx for HPV(Human Papilloma Virus)includes 1.antiviral medications(adlara) 2.Electrocautery(burning lesions) 3.Cryosurgery(freezing lesions)
Created by: pattiluv