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The Reproductive Sys

Body Structures Chapter 18 Page 457

The process by which a single cell duplicates its genetic material is called mitosis
This replication process (mitosis) gives humans a new body every 10 years
The duplicated (mitotic) cells contain 46 chromosomes.
A special type of cellular division that produces the sex cells (spermatozoa and ova) is called meiosis.
Meiotic cells (spermatozoa and ova) contain 23 chromosomes.
The primary sex organs of the male reproductive system are the paired male gonads AKA testes (testicles).
Oxygenated blood is transported to the testes via the testicular arteries.
Deoxygenated blood is transported away from the testes via the testicular veins.
The testes are responsible for producing 1. Spermatozoa. 2. Testosterone.
Spermatozoa are mature sperm cells.
The part of a testicle where spermatogenesis occurs is called the seminiferous tubules.
Spermatozoa are produced at a rate of about 300 million/day.
Spermatozoa have three distinct parts called the: 1. The head. 2. The midpiece. 3. The flagellum (tail).
Each head contains chromosomes
Chromosomes contain genes
Genes contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Each midpiece contains the energy (ATP) for locomotion.
The function of each flagellum is to propel a spermatozoon up the female reproductive tract.
Developing spermatozoa are stored in a comma shaped structure adjacent to each testicle called the epididymis
An epididymis is a tube (duct) whose length is approximately 20 feet long.
It takes the spermatozoa approximately 20 days to move through it.
The spermatozoa travel from the epididymes to the urethra via the vasa deferentia AKA seminal ducts AKA ductus deferentes.
Surgical removal of a section from both seminal ducts causing sterility (infertility) is called a bilateral vasectomy.
This procedure will not affect the sex drive (libido) or secondary sexual characteristics.
Each seminal duct, testicular artery, and testicular vein is surrounded by a protective sheath called the spermatic cord.
The vessels responsible for the expulsion of the spermatozoa into the urethra is called the ejaculatory ducts.
The liquid portion of the ejaculate is called the semen AKA seminal fluid.
The average volume of semen per ejaculation is 2.5 - 6 mL.
The number of spermatozoa ejaculated can be in excess of 300 million
Only thousands reach the cervix.
Only a few hundred reach the ovum.
If the number of spermatozoa falls below 20 million, the male is considered sterile (infertile).
Once ejaculated the spermatozoa can live inside the reproductive tract for approximately 48-72 hours.
Large numbers of spermatozoa are required to fertilize an ovum because the ovum has a protective membrane that must be broken down by an enzyme secreted from the head of each spermatozoon.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include: answers 1 to 4 1. Milky in color. 2. Viscous. 3. Sticky because it contains fructose (energy for the spermatozoa). 4. Alkaline so it can neutralize the acidity of the vaginal secretions and urine.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include: answers 5 and 6 5.Contains seminalplasmin which has the capability of protecting spermatozoa by destroying certain bacteria found in the vaginal tract & semen. 6.Contains enzymes that activate the spermatozoa after ejaculation.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include: answer 7 7. Contains prostaglandins that promote muscular contractions of the female genital tract
Semen is produced by the 1. Prostate. 2. Seminal vesicles. 3. Bulbourethral glands AKA Cowper glands.
The prostate is a donut-shaped gland approximately the size and shape of a chestnut.
The prostate surrounds the superior portion of the urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder.
The seminal vesicles are paired pouch-like structures approximately 2 inches in length located posterior to and at the base of the urinary bladder in front of the rectum.
The bulbourethral (Cowper) glands are paired glands the size of peas and are located just inferior to the prostate
Testosterone is the male sex hormone.
The part of each testicle that produces testosterone is called the interstitial cells of Leydig.
The functions of testosterone include: answers 1-3 1. Development and maintenance of the male sex organs. 2. Descent (usually just before birth) of the testes from the abdominopelvic cavity into the scrotum. 3. Broadening the shoulders and narrowing the hips during puberty.
The functions of testosterone include: answers 4-8 4. Protein build up in muscles producing muscular bulk and firmness in the physique. 5. Maturation of the spermatozoa. 6. Enlargement of the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple). 7. Deepening of the voice. 8. Influencing aggressive behavior.
The functions of testosterone include: answwers 9 and 10 9. Causing facial, body, and pubic hair to appear. 10. Stimulates the sexual drive (libido).
An outpouching of loose skin from the pelvic wall which supports and contains the testes is called the scrotum.
Internally the scrotum is separated into two sacs by a septum (wall).
Each sac contains a testis (testicle).
The scrotum lies outside of the body because spermatozoa and testosterone production require a temperature -3F lower than normal body temperature.
Depending on the temperature, the scrotum has the ability to contract and relax.
The urethra in males is the vessel that carries urine, sperm, and semen to the outside world.
The length of the male urethra is approximately 8 inches.
The male urethra is subdivided into three parts: 1. Prostatic urethra which is surrounded by the prostate. 2. Membranous urethra which runs from the prostatic urethra to the penis. 3. The spongy or cavernous urethra found inside the penis and terminates at the male urethral orifice (meatus, os).
The penis is designed to introduce spermatozoa into the female reproductive tract.
The penis consists of the shaft whose distal portion is slightly enlarged called the glans penis.
Covering the glans penis is a section of loose skin called the prepuce (foreskin).
Internally the penis is composed of e cylindrical masses of spongy tissue containing blood sinuses.
Sexual stimulation causes the penile arteries to dilate allowing large quantities of blood to enter the penis.
Expansion of the blood sinuses compress the penile veins.
These events cause an erection.
Once sexual stimulation ceases, the penile arteries will constrict.
The penile veins drain the blood and the erection is lost.
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection is called impotence AKA erectile dysfunction (ED).
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by: answers 1-4 1.Poorly controlled stress. 2.Trauma to the nerves controlling blood flow to the penis. 3.Diabetes mellitus (DM). 4.Arteriosclerosis of the arteries that supply blood to the penis.
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by: answer 5 5. Side effects from certain medications such as antihypertensives and antidepressants.
Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra work by causing vasodilation of the arteries supplying the penis.
The primary sex organs of the female reproductive system are the paired female gonads called ovaries.
The ovaries are the size of unshelled almonds
The ovaries are located in the superior portion of the pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus.
A structure that attaches an ovary to the uterus is called the utero-ovarian ligament.
The ovaries are responsible for: 1. Oogenesis (creation of ova). 2. Production of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Immature ova are called oocytes.
Developing ova are referred to as follicles.
The pituitary gland produces a hormone responsible for maturation of a follicle called FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).
FSH is released approximately every 28 days.
The pituitary gland produces a hormone that stimulates ovulation called LH (luteinizing hormone).
Expulsion of an ovum from the ovary is called ovulation.
The average female can ovulate approximately 450 times in a lifetime.
Usually the ovaries alternate ovulations.
If the ovaries ovulate at the same time and the two ova are fertilized, the result will be fraternal (dizygotic) twins.
If a fertilized ovum splits it’s genetic material (DNA) into two separate ova the result will be identical (monozygotic) twins.
If the ovaries ovulate at the same time and the two ova are fertilized, the result will be fraternal (dizygotic) twins.
If a fertilized ovum splits it’s genetic material (DNA) into two separate ova the result will be identical (monozygotic) twins.
The structures that transports ova from the ovaries to the uterus are called the fallopian tubes AKA uterine tubes AKA oviducts
The finger-like projections of the fallopian tubes that catch the expelled ovum are called the fimbriae.
An ovum will be moved into and through an oviduct by 1. A waving action of the fimbriae. 2. Ciliary action. 3. Peristalsis.
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as: 1. Menstruation (menses). 2. Breast development. 3. Pubic, body, and axillary hair. 4. Pelvic bones widen. 5. Fat deposits (adipose tissue) in the skin cause a “soft look.”
Union of a sperm with an ovum is called fertilization (conception).
Development of a fertilized ovum is called gestation or pregnancy.
The uterus is AKA the womb.
The uterus is located in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum.
The uterus is the shape of an inverted pear.
The uterus should be angled forward in an anteflexion position.
The uterus is where the fertilized ovum will: 1. Implant. 2. Develop into a zygote, embryo, and fetus. 3. Be expelled during labor.
The superior portion of the uterus is called the fundus.
The middle portion of the uterus is called the corpus (body).
The inferior portion (neck) of the uterus is called the cervix.
The interior of the corpus (body) of the uterus is called the uterine cavity.
The interior of the cervix is called the cervical canal.
The opening of the cervix into the vagina is called the external os.
The outermost layer of the uterus is called the perimetrium (uterine serosa).
The middle (muscle) layer of the uterus is called the myometrium.
The innermost layer of the uterus is called the endometrium.
The region between the uterus and rectum (recto-uterine pouch) is called the Douglas’ cul-de-sac.
The cyclic sloughing (shedding) of the endometrium is called menstruation or menses.
The normal menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman within a range of 24 - 35 days.
Phases of the menstrual cycle are: 1. Menstrual phase – days 1-5. 2. Pre-ovulatory phase – days 6-13. 3. Ovulatory phase – day 14. 4. Post-ovulatory phase – days 15-28.
The menstrual phase involves sloughing (shedding) of the endometrium.
The pre-ovulatory phase involves regeneration of the endometrium in preparation for implantation.
The ovulatory phase involves expulsion of an ovum from an ovary.
The post-ovulatory phase involves: 1. Endometrial hypertrophy in preparation to receive the fertilized ovum. 2. Endometrial atrophy in preparation for the menstrual phase.
The hormones responsible for the development of the endometrium are estrogen and progesterone.
Most birth control pills (BCPs) are varying dosages of estrogen and progesterone.
The hormones responsible for the development of the endometrium are estrogen and progesterone.
Most birth control pills (BCPs) are varying dosages of estrogen and progesterone.
The tissue that will form a connection between the maternal and fetal blood supplies is called the placenta.
A hormone produced by the placenta that will support the developing pregnancy is called HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin).
HCG can be detected with an early pregnancy test (EPT).
EPTs can be performed on a woman’s urine or serum.
The placenta also secretes increasing levels of estrogen and progesterone to support the pregnancy and cause: 1. Breast (mammary tissue) development. 2. Milk production (lactogenesis).
The vagina is a tubular structure which is lined with mucous membranes.
The functions of the vagina include: 1. Passageway for menstruation (menses). 2. Receptacle for the penis, semen, and sperm during intercourse (coitus, copulation). 3. Inferior portion of the birth canal.
The connection between the vagina and the cervix is called the fornix.
The external female genitalia is called the vulva or pudendum
The mound of elevated adipose (fat) tissue that becomes covered with pubic hair is called the mons pubis or veneris.
The lips of the vaginal orifice (os) are called the labia majora (outer lips) and labia minora (inner lips).
A small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue with nerves found at the anterior junction of the labia minora is called the clitoris.
The region within the labia majora and labia minora is called the vestibule.
Within the vestibule is a thin fold of tissue that partially closes the distal end of the vagina called the hymen
On either side of the urethral meatus are mucus secreting (lubrication) glands called the lesser vestibular glands AKA Skene’s glands.
On both sides of the vaginal os are two mucus secreting (lubrication) glands called the greater vestibular glands AKA Bartholin’s glands.
The region between the vaginal os and the anus is usually referred to as the perineum.
The perineum is also used to refer to the external urogenital and anal region of both males and females.
Anterior to the pectoralis major and minor muscles of the thorax (chest) are modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands called mammary glands.
Each mammary gland consists of 15-20 lobes (sections).
In each lobe are smaller compartments called lobules
The size and shape of the breasts is determined by the location and amount of adipose (fat) tissue deposited.
Milk producing (lactogenic) cells located in the lobules are called alveoli.
The milk is stored in the ampullae AKA lactiferous sinuses.
The milk travels from the alveoli to the lactiferous sinuses through the lactiferous ducts.
A nipple is AKA mammary papilla.
The dark pigmented region surrounding each nipple (papilla) is called the areola.
The process of secreting and ejecting milk is called lactation.
The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of milk (lactogenesis) is called prolactin.
ART assisted reproductive technologies
IVF in vitro fertilization
in vitro fertilization medications designed to stimulate the ovaries to ovulate.
Created by: willowsalem