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Major Foramina

QuestionAnswer
Incisive Foramina Nasopalatine n. (V2), sphenopalatine a. (Maxillary a.)
Great and Lesser Palatine foramina Greater and lesser palatine n. and vessels (V2)
Foramen Ovale Mandibular division trigeminaln., accessory meningeal a., lesser petrosal n., emissary v.
Carotid canal internal carotid a., internal carotid n. plexus (sympathetics)
Jugular foramen Glossopharyngeal n., vagus n., spinal accessory n., inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus, posterior meningeal a.
Stylomastoid foramen Facial n., stylomastoid a.
Foramen magnum medulla oblongata, vertebral arteries, spinal roots of the spinal accessory n.
Supraorbital foramen supraorbital n. and vessels (artery comes off of internal corotid)
Optic canal Optic n., opthalmic a.
Inferior orbital fissure Maxillary division of V3 n. zygomatic., infraorbital vessels
Anterior and posterior ethmoid foramen anterior and posterior ethmoid n. and vessels
zygomaticofacial foramen zygomaticofacial n. and vessels
infraorbital foramen infraorbital n. and vessels
mental foramen mental n. and vessels
Falx Cerebri (cerebral falx) separates Left and Right cerebral hemispheres Vertically oriented, along midsagittal plane
Falx Cerebelli (cerebellar falx) separates Left and Right cerebellar hemispheres Vertically oriented, runs in posterior cranial fossa
Tentorium Cerebelli horizonally-oriented fold that separates occipital lobes from cerebellum Has an opening (tentorial notch, tentorial incisure)
why have the tentorial notch? What goes through this? Brain stem Sigmoid sinus drains into jugular vein.
Diaphragma sellae small circular fold that covers sella turcica/pituitary Has a small opening for what? [for stalk of pituitary gland].
Superior Sagittal Sinus located in the superior border of the falx cerebri * Runs from frontal crest to the internal occipital protuberance * will drain into one or both transverse sinuses at the confluens of sinuses * Its lateral edges are called lateral lacunae CSF from
Inferior Sagittal Sinus * it is found within the inferior free edge of the falx cerebri
Straight Sinus formed by the union of inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein (vein of Galen) * runs in the tentorium cerebelli drains into the confluens of sinuses
Confluens of Sinuses (Confluens Sinuum) located at the internal occipital protuberance it is a place where the following sinuses either begin, or drain into: 1. superior sagittal sinus 2. straight sinus 3. left and right transverse sinuses 4. occipital sinus
Occipital Sinus & Marginal Sinuses OS runs in the attached border of the falx cerebelli At For Mag, it bifurcates left and right marginal sinuses, the marginal sinuses usually drain into the sigmoid sinuses also connect/communicate with the internal vertebral venous plexus
Transverse Sinuses * left and right transverse sinuses run in the attached border of the tentorium cerebelli * each runs from the internal occipital protuberance (located centrally) to the petrous portion of the temporal bone
Sigmoid Sinuses * the left and right sigmoid sinuses start at the petrous portion of the temporal bone, then make an S-shaped turn and travel down to the jugular foramen ** drain directly into the internal jugular veins
Superior Petrosal Sinuses * left and right superior petrosal sinuses run along the superior part of the petrous portion of the temporal bone drains blood from the cavernous sinuses to the upper end of the sigmoid sinus
Inferior Petrosal Sinuses * left and right inferior petrosal sinuses run along the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone * drains blood from the cavernous sinuses * also communicate with the basilar plexus
Blood to Cavernous sinus Receives blood from sphenoparietal sinus, ophthalmic veins, some cerebral veins - Blood leaves mainly via superior and inferior petrosal veins Also to pterygoid venous plexus, can also drain via ophthalmic veins
What is inside of cavernous sinus & lateral wall Interal carotid artery CN VI (abducens) CN III (oculomotor) CN IV (trochlear) CN V1 (ophthalmic) CN V2 (maxillary)
Epidural vs Subdural Hematoma Epidural: Arterial, In epidural space, Onset is very rapid (within hours) Subdural: Venous, In subdural space, Onset often is slower (anywhere from hours to many days, depending on type)
Innervation of Dura CN V (trigeminal): all three divisions - supply anterior and middle cranial fossae - V1 anterior cranial fossa, V2 and V3 supply middle cranial fossa CN X (vagus): - portion posterior cranial fossa C2,C3 nerves: - portion posterior cranial fo
Orbicularis Oris Origin: anterior midline of maxilla and mandible Insertion: skin along mouth A: Closes mouth, protrusion of lips, pursing of lips N: buccal and mandibular branches A: superior and inferior labial of facial
Depressor anguli oris O: mandible near external oblique line I: angle of mouth, overlap those of depressor labii inferioris m. Actions: dperesses corners of mouth, antagonizes levelator anguli oris A: inferior labial, mental a. N: mandibular branch
levator anguli oris O: canine fossa of maxilla (inferior to infraorbital foramen) I: angle of mouth, some fibers blend and give origin to obicularis oris F: elevates angle of mouth N: zygomatic and buccal branches A: infraorbital a. (branch of max), superior labial
Zygomaticus major O: zygomatic bone anterior to zygomaticotemporal suture I: angle of mouth F: moves angle of mouth superiorly and laterally N: zygomatic and buccal A: transverse facial a. N: laughing muscle
Zygomaticus minor O: zygomatic bone (anterior to zygo major) I: lateral upper lip F: helps elevate the upper lip N: zygomatic and buccal A: transverse facial a.
Levator labii superioris O: maxilla (superior to infraorbital foramen along inferior margin of orbit I: lateral lip F: elevates upper lip N: zygomatic and buccal branches A: Infraorbital artery
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi O: maxilla (near the bridge of the nose) I: cartilage of nose, lateral upper lip F: elevates upper lip, dilates nostril N: zygomatic and buccal branches A: infraorbital a.
Risorius O: fascia overlying parotid gland I: angle of mouth F: moves the angle of the mouth laterally N: buccal branch A: facial a. Notes: grinning muscle
depressor labii inferioris O: mandible (inferior to mental foramen) I: fibers blend and provide origin for obicularis oris m. F: depresses lower lip N: mandibular branch A: mental artery
mentalis O: incisive fossa of mandible I: skin of lower lip F: protrudes lower lip N: mandibular branch A: mental a.
Buccinator O: pterygomandibular raphe, alveolar margins of max and mand. I: fibers blend provide origin for orbicularis oris, also blends into upper and lower lips F: aids in mastication, expels air and sucks cheeks N: buccal branch A: facial
Platysma O: fascia of upper part of pectoralis major and deltoid I: inferior border of mandible F: wrinkles skin of neck N: facial n: cervical branch A: transverse cervical artery
Nasalis O: maxilla I: compressor naris m. of opposite side F: compresses nostril/dilates N: buccal branch A: Facial a. (angular a.)
Occipitofrontalis (frontalis) O: Galea aponeurosis I: galea aponeurosis F: elvates eyebrows, wrinkles forehead and back of head N: temporal branch of facial n. A: supraorbital and supratrochlear a.
Occipitofrontalis (occipitalis) O: Galea aponeurosis I: galea aponeurosis F: elvates eyebrows, wrinkles forehead and back of head N: posterior auricular branch (facial n.) A: supraorbital and supratrochlear a.
Procerus O: nasal bone, lateral nasal cartilage I: skin of bridge of nose F: brings skin together produce transverse wrinkles on bridge of nose N: temporal and zygomatic branches A: supraorbital branch of opthalamic a.
Mylohyoid m. O: mylohyoid line of mandible I: symphysis menti, mylohyoid raphe, body of hyoid bone F: raises floor or oral cavity, elevates hyoid bone N: mylohyoid n from inferior alveolar branch of V3 A: lingual artery
CN I Olfactory nerve, SVA, smell (sensory)
CN II Optic, SSA, vision (sensory), cribiform plate of ethmoid,
CN III Oculomotor, GSE, GVE, Ciliary muscle, eye muscle contraction, (motor), superior orbital fissure
CN IV Trochlear, GSE, oblique muscle of eye, (motor), superior orbital fissure
CN V Trigeminal, GSA, SVE (Sensory and Motor), superior orbital fissure
CN VI Aducens, GSE, rectus muscle of eye, (motor), superior orbital fissure
CN VII Facial, (both) Stylomastoid foramen
CN VIII Vestibulochochlear, SSA, hearing, (sensory), internal acoustic meatus
CN IX Glossopharyngeal, Taste: 1/3 of rear tongue, Sensory: tonis, pharynx, middle ear, Motor: stylopharyngeus, PAROTID GLAND. (BOTH), Jugular foramen
CN X Vagus neve, motor-heart, lungs, palate, pharynx, larynx, trachea, GI. Sensory-heart, lungs, trachea, bronchi, larynx, GI, external ear, (both), jugular foramen
CN XI Spinal accessory nerve, sternocleidomastoid and trap muscle, (motor), jugular foramen
CN XII hypoglossal, tongue muscles, (motor), hypoglossal canal
What arch are derivatives of muscle of mastication? 1st
What are the motor branches of V3 (mandibular) Anterior and posterior deep temporal, Masseteric, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid
1st Arch: Muscles Masseter, temporalis, lateral ptery, medial ptery, Mylohyoid, An. digastric, tensor tympani
1st Arch: CT and Nerve Sphenomandibular ligament, anterior ligaments of malleus, V3
2nd Arch: Muscles & Cartilage Facial expression, posterior digastric, stylohyoid, stapedius: Reicherts Cartilage
2nd Arch: CT and Nerve Stylohyoid ligament, CT of tonsil, FACIAL
3rd Arch: Muscles, CT, NERVE Stylopharynegeus, CT of thymus and inferior parathyroid: CN IX
4th Arch: Muscles and Cartilage Levator veli palatini, Cricothyroid: Thyroid and Epiglottis
4th Arch: Nerve Vagus CN X
6th Arch: Nerve Vagus CN X
Skull is formed from? Lateral plate mesoderm (neck region), paraxial mesoderm, Neural crest
Viscerocranium 1) Structure 2) Arch 3) Ossification 1st Arch: Maxillary process, Mandibular process. Maxillary Process: intramembranous Mandibular process: intramembranous and endochondral [all intra except condyle and ramus] 2nd Arch: Styloid process, stapes, hyoid (endochondral)
Branches of External Corotid Sally Ate Lots Of Fresh Produce September Through March::::Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occiptal Posterior auricular Maxillary Superficial temporal
Maxillary Artery Branches "DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, " Deep auricular, Anterior tympanic, Middle meningeal, Inferior alveolar, Accessory meningeal, Masseteric, Pterygoid , Deep temporal, Buccal, Sphenopalatine, Descending palatine, Infraorbital, Posterior superior alveolar,
Maxillary Artery Second Half "Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous" Middle superior alveolar, Pharyngeal, Anterior superior alveolar, Artery of the pterygoid canal
Masseter m. (Superficial head) (larger head) O: Inferior border of the anterior 2/3 zygomatic arch I: Angle of mandible, inferior and lateral parts of mandibular ramus F: elevates mandible, protrudes mandible, lateral excursion A: masseteric a. I: masseteric branch of mandibular
Masseter m. (deep head) O: Medial border of zygomatic arch, inferior boarder of the posterior 1/3 of zygo arch I: Superolateral mandibular ramus, cornoid process F: elevates mandible, protrudes mandible, lateral excursion A: masseteric a. I: masseteric branch of mandibular
Temporalis O: entire temporal fossa, along inferior temporal line including temporal fascia I: Coronoid process F: elevates mandible, retrudes mandible, aids in lateral excursion of the mandible I: anterior and posterior deep temporal branches of V3 A:Deep temp
Medial Pterygoid (deep) O: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate I: medial surface of ramus and angle of the mandible F: elevates mandible, protrudes A: Pterygoid branch of Max a. I: pterygoid branch from V3
Medial Pterygoid (superfical) O: Maxillary tuberosity, pramidal process of palatine I: medial surface of ramus and angle of the mandible F: elevates mandible, protrudes A: Pterygoid branch of Max a. I: pterygoid branch from V3
Lateral pterygoid (upper head) O: grater wing of sphenoid, infratemporal crest I: Articular disc and capsule of TMJ F: depresses mandible, protudes mandible I: lateral pterygoid branches from V3 A: pterygoid a. branch of Maxillary
Lateral pterygoid (lower head) O: Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate I: pterygoid fovea on neck of condyle of mandible F: depresses mandible, protudes mandible I: lateral pterygoid branches from V3 A: pterygoid a. branch of Maxillary
Created by: hansen44