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Renaissance

First test on AP Exam

QuestionAnswer
What were some crisis of the Middle Ages? Black death, religious greed, pope taking power, decline of the feudal system, rise of merchants or middle class
Italian City-States were run by merchants, became so wealthy they were better off than the northern monarchies, trade crossroads, urbanism-city states- polis
Scholarly Renaissance Monks copied books, Aristotle's and Plato's work
"The Birth of Europe" Formed from the treaty of Verdun- broke into 3 parts- then 2 parts- France and England (also Germany)
Humanism The scholarly study of classical as well as Christian sources for its own sake -hope of rebirth emphasized human potential and achievement worldly interests prioritized over those of the afterlife
Medici Bankers in Florence for the Roman Catholic Church -Florence very wealthy because of this
Where did the Renaissance begin? Florence, Venice, Milan and Rome
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) wrote the Divine Comedy in Vernacular, was a satire
Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) Father of Humanism, wrote letters to the ancient dead
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) Encouraged a post-plague belief in philosophy of carpe dium and assembled a collection of Greek and Roman mythology -Decameron
Christine de Pisan wrote a chronicle of the accomplishments of the great women of history -Treasure of the City of Ladies
Lorenzo Valla Author of the standard Renaissance test of Latin Philogy Proved that the 4th century Donation of Constantine was a fraud
Baldassare Castiglione wrote a practical guide for the nobility that embodied the highest ideals of Italian humanism describing how to become a "Renaissance Man" -Book of Courtier
Florentine Academy first school not set up by the church
Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Free will, Oration of the dignity of man-believing that a humanist education should promote not just individual virtue but also public service
Civic Humanism humanist idealism must guide political life -service learning
How did art become so popular? Italians had more money to pay for art, art communicated social, political and spiritual values, became a competition for the best art
Giotto (1266-1337) father of Italian Renaissance paintings, created life-like human figures with realistic emotions -shadowing -Lamentation of Christ
What are the Characteristics of the Renaissance? Realism and Expression, Perspective, Classicism, Emphasis on Individualism, Geometrical Arrangement of Figures, Light and Shadowing/softening edges, and Artists as personalities/ celebrities
Florin Florences currency 1252
Eurasmus Flanders, Prince of Humanists and Father of Christian Humanism, expressed his desire for Church reform by reflecting on his belief in a simple, ethical piety in imitation of Christ: Philosophia Christi, opposed a religion of rules, wealth
Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) of England- criticized his own societies flaws by describing an ideal nearly perfect society -Utopia (in Greek- no place)
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) of England- examined basic human flaws and imperfections
Jan Van Eyack (1395-1441) of Flanders- oil paints allowed for wide variety of colors, realistic detail revealed his subjects personalities, signatures in paintings
Albrecht Duerer (1471-1528) of Germany- deeply religious subjects
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) of Germany, portrait displayed realism in detail
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569) Of Flanders, scenes celebrating everyday events
What were the aspects of the Northern Renaissance Flaws, everyday life, humanism and individualism
How did the Northern Renaissance come around? The merchants from Italy brought their ideas and customs with them, the 100 years war had held them back, Italian artists escaped to Flanders (no nudes, more kings in art, monarchs sheltered artists)
When, where and by whom was the Printing Press invented? 1448, Mainz Germany, Johann Gutenberg
What did the Printing Press do/allow for? revolutionized the world, more books, people became literate, ideas spread farther and faster
How did the Northern Renaissance's values and characteristics differ from Italy's Renaissance? Black Death never happened, 100 years war held them back, learnings are more christian centered -Christian Humanism-philisophical union of Christian and humanist ideals
Who were some Important political figures in Florence? Lorenzo the magnificent (1478-15210 and Cosimo de Medici (1517-1574)
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1436) architect and painter
The Ideal City Piero della Fracesca (1470)- no people so no mistakes
Ghiberti gates of Paradise, beats Brunelleschi who designed the dome it was in
Raphael artist- SCHOOL OF ATHENS
Michelangelo sculptor and artist
Leonardo da Vinci artist, sculptor, architect, scientist, engineer, and inventor
Savonarola anti-humanist, had people burn art and convinced Botticelli to burn his own art
Political themes of the Renaissance Medici family controlled Florence, Church increased political power and strayed from ideology, Merchants/rise of the middle class, Naples is the only kingdom in Italy, Treaty of Lodi, French invasion, City-states, Savonarola (puppet), Caesare-nepotism
How was Milan ruled? Despotism- Sforza
How did King Henry the VII take power? Divine right of conquest in the war of the roses
What was the Pazzi Conspiracy? Pope Sixtus the IV tried to kill Lorenzo de Medici
What type of government did Florence have? Oligarchy
What type of government did Venice have? Oligarchy
Religious themes of the Renaissance Popes were more political, christian humanism, Northern Renaissance focused on christian teaching and practicing good work and having integrity (Lay Piety), printing press spread ideas, Dante w/ Divine Comedy, Holy League-Italy united against France
What did the Concordat of Bologna do? temporarily ended investiture struggle
Economic themes of the Renaissance Medici were bankers of the Church, Florin, Flanders, Italy is trade center with Constantinople then within themselves, Kings go around nobles to Merchants
who ruled Venice? Doge family
What did the King of England to to usurp the nobles power He made the star chamber
Artistic themes of the Renaissance Symmetry/Balance, classical popes, Raphael, Michaelangelo, Da Vinci, Donatello, Giotto, Botticelli, religious themes, express humanism, individualism and mannerism, facial expressions, shading (shadowing)
Social themes of the Renaissance humanism, classicism, individualism, Carpe Dium, urbanism, sprezzatura (italian Renaissance swag-Castiglione Baldarsse), rise in merchant class, people pay for art, less reliant on church (church at home)
Raphael artist- SCHOOL OF ATHENS
Michelangelo sculptor and artist
Leonardo da Vinci artist, sculptor, architect, scientist, engineer, and inventor
Savonarola anti-humanist, had people burn art and convinced Botticelli to burn his own art
Political themes of the Renaissance Medici family controlled Florence, Church increased political power and strayed from ideology, Merchants/rise of the middle class, Naples is the only kingdom in Italy, Treaty of Lodi, French invasion, City-states, Savonarola (puppet), Caesare-nepotism
How was Milan ruled? Despotism- Sforza
How did King Henry the VII take power? Divine right of conquest in the war of the roses
What was the Pazzi Conspiracy? Pope Sixtus the IV tried to kill Lorenzo de Medici
What type of government did Florence have? Oligarchy
What type of government did Venice have? Oligarchy
Religious themes of the Renaissance Popes were more political, christian humanism, Northern Renaissance focused on christian teaching and practicing good work and having integrity (Lay Piety), printing press spread ideas, Dante w/ Divine Comedy, Holy League-Italy united against France
What did the Concordat of Bologna do? temporarily ended investiture struggle
Economic themes of the Renaissance Medici were bankers of the Church, Florin, Flanders, Italy is trade center with Constantinople then within themselves, Kings go around nobles to Merchants
who ruled Venice? Doge family
What did the King of England to to usurp the nobles power He made the star chamber
Artistic themes of the Renaissance Symmetry/Balance, classical popes, Raphael, Michaelangelo, Da Vinci, Donatello, Giotto, Botticelli, religious themes, express humanism, individualism and mannerism, facial expressions, shading (shadowing)
Social themes of the Renaissance humanism, classicism, individualism, Carpe Dium
Intellectual themes of the Renaissance translated the bible into Vernacular, Value of Liberal Arts increased, Florentine Academy-Liberal Arts, Printing Press came out-more books & ideas could be spread farther, Da Vinci- intellectual leader
Name Influential books from the Renaissance book of courtier, the prince, divine comedy, city of ladies, Decameron, Eutopia (thomas moore)
Who was Petrarch? Father of Humanism, wrote letters to the dead, crowned Poet Laureate of Rome
1095-1295 Crusades
1309-1377 Avignon Papacy
1378-1417 Great Schism
1347-1350 The Black Plague
1325 Dante Aligheri's Divine Comedy
1337-1453 Hundred Years War
What did Lorenzo Valla do? proved that the Donation of Constantine was a fake
1454 treaty of Lodi (got Venice and Milan to stop fighting)
Who succeeds Cosimo de Medici and where do they rule? Lorenzo, Milan
1492 Reconquista
1498 Savonarola
1512 Holy League and Sistine Chapel
1516 Concordat of Bologna
Name the 4 major Popes Alexander VI (Cesare-incharge of Papal armies), Pope Sixtus IV (pazzi conspiracy), Pope Julius II (warrior pope) and Leo X (spent all of the churches fortune and started selling indulgences
What did Charles VIII Invades Italy
Created by: MDunn12