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Anatomy Exam 2 Terms

Genetics, Embryology, Integumentary System

Blastomeres The first two daughter cells during cleavage
Morula A spherical stage consisting of 16 or more blastomeres
Blastocyst a fluid-filled, spherical stage with an outer mass of trophoblast cells and inner mass of embryoblast cells; becomes implanted in the endometrium; inner cell mass forms an embryonic disc and differentiates into the three primary germ layers
Blastomere cell produced by cleavage
trophoblast the outer layer of squamous cells on a blastocyst
embryoblast the inner cell mass of a blastocyst
mesoderm (definition) The layer of cells between the hypoblast (which is being replaced by the endoderm) and the epiblast (soon to become ectoderm)
mesoderm (What it makes) skeleton, muscles, glands, dermis, blood
ectoderm (what it makes) epidermis, nervous system, eyes, nasal, oral, anal cavities
Endoderm digestive and respiratory tracts, digestive and reproductive glands, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus
yolk sac where blood cells form
The ____ is the first cell of the new individual after fertilization zygote
The major body parts derived from the endoderm are the epithelial lining of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, urethra
Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst
At the blastocyst stage, the cells are considered pluripotent
Totipotent the ability of a cell in the embryo to develop into any type of tissue
(T or F) It is not possible to determine what adult strucures were derived from which embryonic layer False
The cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the inner cell mass
The epithelial lining for all major body parts is derived from the endoderm
The process that involves formation of a three germ layer embryo gastrulation
Which of the following adult structures is not derived from the same primary germ layer as the others? Nerves, bones, muscles, bone marrow nerves (others are made by mesoderm)
The primitive streak is formed when epiblast cells migrate to form the mesoderm True
Purines (DNA) Adenine (A), Guanine (G)
Purines (RNA) Adenine (A), Guanine (G)
Pyrimidines (DNA) Thymine(T), Cytosine(C)
Pyrimidines (RNA) Uracil(U), Cytosine(C)
Transcription DNA->RNA
Translation converting language of nucleotides to amino acids
Synthesis of a protein stops when any of three "stop" codons are encountered in the mRNA
What is the sequence of DNA replication? Transcription, Translation, Protein synthesis
(T or F) Transcription yields protein and translation produces RNA False
Gene The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic information for making a protein
The sequence of nucleotides in a messenger RNA molecule is needed to determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein
DNA replication results in two new DNA molecules. Each of these new molecules has one stand of nucleotides from the parents DNA and one newly synthesized strand of nucleotides
DNA synthesis occurs during what phase? the S phase of interphase
_____ are factors that cause mutation Mutagens
Extracellular matrix consists of ground substance and protein fibers
involuntary muscles are smooth and cardiac
_____ produce connective tissue fibers fibroblasts
The extracellular matrix is (the same, different) in all tissues different
Intercellular junctions include gap junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes
Bones form concentric circles around longitudinal tubes called central canals
The type of intercelluar junction that functions as a rivet or "spot weld" is a desmosome
Epithelial membranes are typically composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissue
Created by: libbygrace7