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Membrane Potentials The difference in electrical potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell. Typical values of membrane potential range from –40 mV to –80 mV.
Action Potentials (Nerve Impulse) A short-lasting event when electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a mvt process. In neurons, plays a part in cell communication. In other types of cells, their main function is to activate intracellular processes.
Synaptic Potentials (Postsynaptic Potential) An alteration in the membrane potential of a cell resulting from activation of a synaptic input.
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) The kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Excititory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) The kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron more likely to generate an action potential.
Neuron (Neurone or Nerve Cell) A cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals via a synapse. Core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Different types exist.
Proton A subatomic particle with the symbol p or p+ and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom.
Neutron A subatomic hadron particle which has the symbol n or n0, no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
Electron This has no known components or substructure. It is generally thought to be an elementary particle.
Radioactive Decay The process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing particles.
Capacitance The ability of a body to store an electrical charge.
Osmosis A physical process in which any solvent moves, without input of energy, across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations.
Dendrites The branched projections of a neuron that conduct electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to soma of the neuron. Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons via synapses at the dendritic arbor.
Ganglion (Ganglia) Cluster of nerve cell bodies.
Axon Long, single fiber that conducts an impulse away from the cell body.
Interneuron Conducts impulses from sensory to motor neurons. Found only in the CNS.
Dura Mater Outermost layer of meninges and composed of strong, white fibrous tissue.
Arachnoid Middle layer of meninges, delicate and 'cobwebby.'
Pia Mater Innermost layer of meninges. Delicate, connective tissue high in vascularity.
Myelin Sheath White, fatty tissue surrounding most axons.
Neurilemma Membranous covering composed of Schwann cells, covering the myelin sheath.
Neuron Basic, microscopic functional unit of the nervous system (nerve cell).
PNS Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord (cranial, spinal, and ANS).
Plexus (Plexuses) Interlocking network of nerves.
Reflex Arch Two or more neurons that conduct impulses from the PNS to the CNS and back again.
Sensory Neuron (Afferent Neuron, Nerve Fiber) Carries nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs towards the CNS. Communicates with specialized inter-neurons.
Synapse Point of junction (space) between two neurons over which an impulse passes.
Nodes of Ranvier (Myelin Sheath Gaps) Gaps formed between the myelin sheaths generated by different cells. It is a many-layered coating, largely composed of a fatty substance called myelin, that wraps around the axon of a neuron and very efficiently insulates it.
Glial Cells (Neuroglia, Glia) Non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain, and for neurons in other parts of the nervous system such as in the autonomic nervous system.
Glial Cells - Astrocytes (Astroglia): Star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They are the most abundant cell of the human brain. They perform many functions, including biochemical support. (BBB).
Glial Cells - Microglia: A type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the CNS. These constitute 20% of the total glial cell population within the brain.
Glial Cells - Ependymal Cells: The thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord. This is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system. It is involved in the production of CSF.
Glial Cells - Oligodendrocytes (Glue in Greek): A brain cell variety of neuroglia. Their main functions are to provide support insulation to the axons (the long projection of nerve cells) in the CNS.
Glial Cells - Schwann Cell (Neurolemmocytes): The principal glia of the PNS. Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings.
Sensory Neuron Responsible for converting various external stimuli into corresponding internal stimuli. Activated by sensory input (vision, touch, hearing, etc.), and send projections into the CNS that convey sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.
Motor Neuron (Efferent Nerve Fiber, Somatosensory Neurons) Arise from motor neuron cell bodies in the ventral horns of the gray matter within the spinal cord. Project axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles, glands, ciliated cells of ears, etc. to produce movement.
Interneuron (Relay Neuron, Association Neuron, Connector Neuron, Local Circuit Neuron) Forms connection between other neurons. Neither motor nor sensory. Applies to brain and spinal cord neurons whose axons connect only with nearby neurons. Distinguished from "projection" neurons.
Perikaryon (Cell Body, Soma) The bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.
Nissl Body A large granular body found in neurons. These granules are rough endoplasmic reticulum (with free ribosomes) and are the site of protein synthesis.
Endoneurium Endoneurial channel, sheath or tube, is a layer of delicate connective tissue made up of endoneurial cells that encloses the myelin sheath of a spinal cord nerve fiber.
Nerve Fascicle Small bundle of nerve fibers, enclosed by the perineurium, is this. If small size, it may consist only of a single one; but if large, are collected together into larger bundles, which are bound together in a common membranous investment.
Perineurium PNS nerve fibers are each wrapped in a protective sheath known as the endoneurium. These are bundled together into groups known as fascicles, each surrounded by a protective sheath known as this.
Epineurium Outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve. It is made of dense irregular connective tissue and usually contains multiple nerve fascicles as well as blood vessels which supply the nerve.
Resting Potential Relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells, as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.
The resting membrane potential of a neuron is about... -70 mV (mV=millivolt) - this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside.
At rest, there are more sodium ions... Outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron.
Chemicals in the body are... Electrically charged.
When chemicals are electrically charged, they are called... Ions.
The important ions in the nervous system are... Sodium and Potassium.
What type of charge does Sodium have? Positive. +
What ions have a positive charge? Potassium.
What charge does Calcium have? Two positive charges. ++
What type of charge does Chloride have? Negative. -
A nerve cell membrane is... Semi-permeable.
Depolarizing Current A stimulus causes the resting potential to move toward 0 mV. When it reaches about -55 mV a neuron will fire an action potential. This is the threshold. If the neuron does not reach this critical threshold level, then no action potential will fire.
How do action potentials vary? They are all the same size. Therefore, the neuron either does not reach the threshold or a full action potential is fired - this is the "ALL OR NONE" principle.
When does an action potential occur? When different ions cross the neuron membrane.
How does an action potential occur? A stimulus first causes sodium channels to open. Because there are many more sodium ions on the outside, and the inside of the neuron is negative relative to the outside, sodium ions rush into the neuron and becomes depolarized.
Propagation or an Action Potential Currents flowing inwards at a point on the axon spread out along the axon, and depolarize the adjacent sections of its membrane. If strong, this provokes a similar action potential at the neighboring membrane patches. Next is a refractory period.
Synapse A structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise).
Mitochondrion (Plural Mitochondria) Membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
The number of natural elements? 92
The nucleus of an atom is made up of... Protons and Neutrons.
Surrounding the nucleus are... Electrons.
Current is the movement of... Electrons.
Magnatism 2 like charges repel, 2 opposite charges attract.
Atom The smallest piece of an element.
Compound Formed by at least 2 elements, has individual units called molucuels, and can be separated into the elements that formed them.
Elements Cannot be separated or subdivided.
Nucleus Made up of protons (+), neutrons (neutral), and surrounded by numerous orbiting electrons (-).
Electron Flow and Current: The mvt of current from - to +(flow).
Resting Potential: When an axon is not conducting a nerve impulse. This is measured in millivolts and it is the electrical difference.
Resting Potential of an Axon (on the inside): 70 mv
Threshold: -70 mv
Action Potential / Nerve Impulse (Dipole Model): An electrical charge that occurs in the axon membrane and causes the impulse to travel along the nerve fiber.
Excititory NTs (and causes depolarization): Na+ (Sodium)
Inhibitory NTs (and causes repolarization): K+ (Potassium)
Sodium/Potassium Pump 3 Na+ Out / 2K+ In
Created by: kmburg5840