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Week 8

11/01

QuestionsAnswers
This Gross Anatomy stack covers the neck section discussed in class while Clayton was off in Florida playing soccer. (blank)
Q: Name the subdivisions of the anterior triangle. A: The anterior triangle is divided into four subdivisions: The submandibular triangle, submental triangle, carotid triangle, and the muscular triangle.
Q: Name the boundaries of the submandibular triangle. A: The submandibular triangle, a subdivision of the anterior triangle, is outlined by the inferior border of the mandible and the anterior & posterior bellies of the digastric muscle.
Q: Name the boundaries of the submental triangle. A: The submental triangle, a subdivision of the anterior triangle, is outlined by the hyoid bone, the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, and the midline.
Q: Name the boundaries of the carotid triangle. A: The carotid triangle, a subdivision of the anterior triangle, is outlined by the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, and the SCM.
Q: Name the boundaries of the muscular triangle. A: The muscular triangle, a subdivision of the anterior triangle, is outlined by the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle, the SCM, and the midline (Gray’s includes the hyoid bone as a superior border).
Q: What forms the floor of the submandibular triangle? A: Most of the floor is formed by the mylohyoid muscle, but you could also include the hyoglossus muscle and a small part of the middle constrictor of the pharynx.
Q: Name the contents of the submandibular triangle. A: The submandibular gland, submandibular lymph nodes, submandibular ducts (Wharton’s ducts), hypoglossal nerve (CNXII), nerve to the mylohyoid, part of the facial nerve & artery, and the submental artery.
Q: The superior part of each common carotid artery and its divisions into external and internal carotid arteries occurs in which triangle? A: About halfway up the carotid triangle.
Q: At the bifurcation of the common carotid artery the internal carotid arteries are dilated. What is this dilation called and what is its function? A: These dilations are the carotid sinuses. They contain baroreceptors that monitor blood pressure and are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX).
Q: In addition to baroreceptors, what other type of receptors can be found near the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries? A: You can also find an accumulation of chemoreceptors known as the carotid body. These chemoreceptors monitor things like oxygen levels, CO2 levels and pH.
Q: What is the innervation of the carotid bodies? A: The carotid bodies are innervated by both the glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX) and the vagus n. (CN X).
Q: I am a fascia wrapping that protects a neurovascular bundle and allows for movement of the neck at the same time. What am I? A: The carotid sheath.
Q: What can be found within the carotid sheath? A: From medial to lateral, carotid artery, vagus nerve (located posteriorly), and the jugular vein. Picture this arrangement from our dissection.
Q: The ansa cervicalis is not considered a content of the carotid sheath. So where is it? A: The ansa cervicalis can be found adhered to the outside of the carotid sheath.
Q: What are the contents of the muscular triangle? A: You can find some infrahyoid muscles, the thyroid gland, and the parathyroid glands on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
Q: Name the contents of the submental triangle. A: Submental lymph nodes and some small veins.
Q: What drains the middle lower lip & the lower front teeth? A: Submental lymph nodes.
Q: Define lymphadenopathy. It’s not in you notes unless you wrote it down on page 12. A: Swollen & painful lymph nodes.
Q: Dr. Kirk didn’t really talk much about the common carotid arteries but tell me about them anyway. Where do they come from? A: The right common carotid artery comes from the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery comes directly off the arch of the aorta.
Q: How many branches of the internal carotid arteries can be found in the neck? A: None! The internal carotid arteries pass into the head via the carotid canal prior to branching.
Q: Name the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. A: There are three anterior branches of the external carotid artery: superior thyroid a., lingual a., and facial a.
Q: Name the terminal branches of the external carotid artery. A: There are two terminal branches of the external carotid artery: maxillary a. and superficial temporal a.
Q: If you know the anterior and terminal branches of the external carotid artery you really don’t have to worry about the posterior branches because on a test question the choices that are not anterior or terminal will be posterior. A: Example TQ: Which of the following is not considered an anterior branch of the external carotid artery? A. facial a. B. lingual C. superior thyroid D. occipital
Q: Did you know terminal branches make really good test questions? A: Neither did I. I’m sure glad Dr. Kirk made this clear.
Q: Here are two free points on your exam: What is the first branch off the external carotid artery? A: The superior thyroid artery. Now all you need is 48 more points and you’re set.
Q: I extend from just inferior to the jugular foramen to the brachiocephalic vein. What am I? A: The internal jugular vein.
Q: Does the internal jugular vein have valves? A: Yes! The internal jugular vein has two major bicuspid valves: one at the superior bulb (located just inferior to the jugular foramen) and the other at the inferior bulb (at the location of the brachiocephalic vein).
Q: Name the tributaries of the internal jugular vein. A: On second thought, that would require a lot more memorization and Dr. Kirk did say we don’t need to worry about these so never mind. Forget I even mentioned it.
Q: I am a prevertebral muscle that acts as a kinesiology monitors since I am full of Golgi tendon organs and chances are you will never see me because you won’t dissecting me out in lab. Who am I? A: I don’t have enough info. You could be either rectus capitus anterior or rectus capitus lateralis.
Q: If longus colli m. is the answer, what is the question? A: Which of the following prevertebral muscles does NOT attach to the occipital bone? Remember, colli means neck.
Q: Which scalene muscle is the longest and largest? A: The middle scalene.
Q: Which scalene muscle(s) attaches to the first rib? A: The anterior and middle scalene muscles, but the posterior scalene muscle will not pass up the opportunity to grab onto that first rib on its way the rib two.
Q: Which scalene muscle(s) attach to the clavicle? A: None! Scalene muscles go from TVPs to ribs.
Q: Sometimes I can be found attached from a TVP as high as C2 and down as far as C6 to the first rib. Who am I? A: I am the middle scalene, the largest and longest of the scalene muscles.
Q: Name the boundaries of the root of the neck. A: Superior thoracic aperture (body of T1), first rib, manubrium.
Q: The first branch off the subclavian artery in the root of the neck is… A: …the vertebral artery.
Q: The second branch off the subclavian artery in the root of the neck is… A: …the thyrocervical trunk.
Q: Name the branches of the thyrocervical trunk. A: The inferior thyroid a., suprascapular a., and the transverse cervical a.
Q: What is the largest branch off the thyrocervical trunk and where does it go? A: The largest branch off the thyrocervical trunk is the inferior thyroid artery which goes to the thyroid.
Q: Do we need to worry about the costocervical trunk or the dorsal scapular artery? A: Not according to Dr. Kirk.
Q: Do the veins in the root of the neck have valves? A: Nope! They’re valveless.
Q: Which veins are present in the root of the neck? A: Anterior jugular v., external jugular v., internal jugular v., and subclavian v.
Q: I can be found within the carotid sheath and hooking up with the subclavian vein behind the medial end of the clavicle. Who am I? A: Internal jugular vein.
Q: I came from the axillary vein, I cross the first rib anterior to the anterior scalene, and I help form the brachiocephalic vein. Who am I? A: Subclavian vein.
Q: Does the anterior jugular pass anterior or posterior to the SCM? A: Posterior.
Q: What does the external jugular drain in to? A: The external jugular drains into the subclavian vein just LATERAL to the internal jugular vein.
Created by: GrossAnatomy1