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A&P 18&19

Exam #2

QuestionAnswer
What structures prevent prolapse of atrioventricular valves? Chordae tendineae
Where is the Bundle of HIS located? Interventricular septum
The lub-dub heart sounds heard during auscultation of the heart are associated with? The heart valves closing
Blood flow during ventricular filling is most dependent upon what? pressure changes
This valve is found between the right atrium and the right ventricle Tricuspid
During which part of the cardiac cycle would pressure in the ventricle be at its lowest? mid-diastole
Arial repolarization occurs during this period of time, seen on an EKG QRS complex
Blood is prevented from flowing back into the left ventricle by the: aortic semilunar valve
This area is known as the pacemaker of the heart SA node
Structures in the ventricles trabeculae carneae, papillary muscles, and chordae tendineae
The most important factor for stretching cardiac muscle is: End diastolic volume
The greatest decrease in ventricular pressure occurs at this time Isovolumetric relaxation
Blood being pumped out of the left ventricle enters the aorta
Deoxygenated blood from the myocardium enters the right atrium through the coronary sinus
Nerve impulses directly supplied to the papillary muscles by the Purkinje fibers
The entire ventricular myocardium is depolarized during this time on an EKG S-T segment
All oxygenated blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins
Blood is carried to the heart by these vessels Veins
The parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate by opening potassium gates
An increase in end diastolic volume would have which effect on cardiac output? increase
The anterior surface of the heart consists mostly of this chamber right ventricle
All four heart valves are closed during this time Isovolumetic contractions
Cardiac muscle tissue is found in which layer of the heart? myocardium
The amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute is called cardiac output
The renin-angiotensin mechanism stimulates the release of which hormone? aldosterone
Long-term mechanisms control blood pressure by regulating blood volume
If you have a blood pressure of 120/80mmHg, what is your diastolic pressure? 80
If you have a blood pressure of 110/80mmHg, what is your pulse pressure? 30
Gaining weight may increase blood pressure because increased adipose tissues cause an increase in blood vessel length
These vessels also serve as a blood reservoir veins
Types of capillaries fenestrated, sinusoidal, continuous
These arteries supply 80% of the cerebrum internal carotids
Which of the following blood vessel types have the greatest effect on peripheral resistance? arterioles
An increase in peripheral resistance would have what effect on blood pressure? increase
Sinusoids are a highly modified form of these vessels capillaries
Found in large arteries elastic tissue, smooth muscle, endothelium
Venules unite to form veins
These vessels are able to constrict arterioles
The aortic reflex sends inhibitory impulses to the vasomotor center
In which of the following tissues would low oxygen levels cause vasoconstriction? lungs
Baroreceptors in our arteries respond to an increase in blood pressure
The exchange between blood vessels and cells occurs here capillaries
The first portion of the aorta is called the ascending aorta
This is the muscular layer of blood vessels Tunica media
These are the smallest blood vessels in our body capillaries
These vessels carry blood toward the heart venules
This part of the nervous system is responsible for vasomotor tone sympathetic
Branches off the arch of aorta left common carotid artery, brachiocephalic artery, left subclavian artery
A series of vessels that connect to capillary beds is a(n) portal system
What are the layers of the heart? epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
What is the location of the heart? in the mediastinum between second rib and fifth intercostal space
What is the heart enclosed in? Pericardium
How many chambers are in the heart? 4 (2 atria-right and left and 2 ventricles)
The right side of the heart is the pump for what circuit? and the vessels carry blood _________ pulmonary to and from the lungs
The left side of the heart is the pump for what circuit? and the vessels carry blood_______ systemic to and from all body tissues
Major branches of coronary circulation: arteries and veins arteries: right and left coronary, marginal, circumflex, and anterior interventricular arteries veins: small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and great cardiac veins
Atrioventricular valves (AV) Prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract tricuspid valve:right and mitral valve:left
Semilunar valves (SL) Prevent backflow into the ventricles when ventricles relax Aortic semilunar valve and pulmonary semilunar valve
Cardiac muscles striated, short, fat, branched and interconnected numerous large mitochondria intercalated discs: junctions between cells anchor cardiac cells
Arrhythmias irregular heart rhythms
Fibrillation rapid, irregular contractions, useless for pumping blood (can lead to clots)
Defective SA node may result in Ectopic focus: abnormal pacemaker takes over
Defective AV node may result in Partial or total heart block Few or no impulses from SA node reach the ventricles
Where are cardiac centers located? Medulla oblongata
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) a composite of all the action potentials generated by nodal and contractile cells at a given time
What are the 3 electrocardiography waves P wave, QRS complex, T wave
P wave depolarization of SA node
QRS complex ventricular depolarization
T wave ventricular repolarization
What are heart murmurs abnormal heart sounds most often indicative of valve problems
Heart sounds: how does the first sound occur? AV valves close and signifies beginning of systole
Heart sounds: how does the second sound occur? SL valves close at the beginning of ventricular diastole
What is the cardiac cycle? all events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete heartbeat
Systole contraction
Diastole relaxation
What are the phases of cardiac cycle? Ventricular filling, ventricular systole, and isovolumetric relaxation
How do you find cardiac output? heart rate x stroke volume
What 3 main factors affect stroke volume? preload, contractility, and afterload
What factors influence heart rate? age, gender, exercise, body temperature
What is tachycardia? abnormally fast heart beat
What is bradycardia? heart rate is slower than 60bpm
Arteries carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs (allow nutrients and gases to diffuse)
Veins carry blood toward the heart
Structure of blood vessel walls: arteries and veins tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa
Structure of blood vessel walls: Lumen central blood-containing space
Structure of blood vessel walls: Capillaries endothelium with sparse basal lamina
Tunica intima endothelium lines the walls (squamous cells)
Tunic media smooth muscle and sheets of elastin fibers
Tunica externa collagen fibers protect and reinforce
Arterioles smallest arteries- lead to capillary beds-control flow into capillary beds via vasodilation and vasoconstriction
Capillaries are in all tissues except: cartilage, epithelia, cornea and lens of eye
Functions of capillaries exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc.
What are the 3 structural types of capillaries Continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal
Continuous capillaries abundant in the skin and muscles
Fenestrated capillaries Function in absorption or filtrate formation (small intestines, endocrine glands, and kidneys, filters urine)
Sinusoidal capillaries allow large molecules and blood cells to pass between the blood and surrounding tissues- found in liver, bone marrow and spleen
Capillary beds consist of two types of vessels: Vascular shunt and true capillaries
Capillary beds-Vascular shunt: directly connects the terminal arteriole and a post capillary venule
Capillary beds- True capillaries branch off the metarteriole or terminal arteriole
What regulates blood flow into true capillaries? precapillary sphincters
Capillary beds consist of two types of vessels: Vascular shunt and true capillaries
Capillary beds-Vascular shunt: directly connects the terminal arteriole and a post capillary venule
Capillary beds- True capillaries branch off the metarteriole or terminal arteriole
Relationship of blood flow and blood pressure If blood pressure increases, blood flow speeds up
What regulates blood flow into true capillaries? precapillary sphincters
Relationship of blood flow and peripheral resistance Blood flow is inversely proportional to peripheral resistance---if resistance increases, blood flow decreases (flow=pressure X resistance)
How is the blood flow regulated through capillary beds? local chemical conditions and vasomotor nerves
What generates blood flow? pumping action of the heart
Venules formed when capillary beds unite- very pourous- allow fluids and WBCs into tissues
Relationship of blood flow and blood pressure If blood pressure increases, blood flow speeds up
Relationship of blood flow and peripheral resistance Blood flow is inversely proportional to peripheral resistance---if resistance increases, blood flow decreases (flow=pressure X resistance)
What generates blood flow? pumping action of the heart
Pressure results from? the flow being opposed by resistance
Systolic pressure pressure exerted during ventricular contraction
Diastolic pressure lowest level of arterial pressure
How do you calculate pulse pressure? systolic-diastolic
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) pressure that propels the blood to the tissues
MAP formula diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
What factors influence blood pressure? cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume
How does the body regulate blood pressure? Changes in one variable (cardiac output, peripheral resistance, or blood volume) are quickly compensated for by changes in the other variables
Created by: alexah