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Brachial Plexus&Axi

Brachial Plexus and Axilla

What is the axilla? A potential space that contains arteries, veins and nerves. Lymph nodes and fat. Brachial plexus
What are the boundaries of the axilla Superior: Lower border of first rib. Apex: Clavicle anteriorly. Base: Skin and fascia of armpit. Lateral: Intertubercular sulcus of humerus. Posterior: Subscapularis muscle. Medial: Serratus anterior muscle
Where does the axilla end? Where the latissimus meets the lateral wall of the body
What is the suspensory ligament? Extension of the clavipectoral fascia below the pectoralis minor. It is the lowest limit of the axilla. Gives you the indent when you lift your armpit up
What is the functions of the axilla? Mobility of space allows you to move your arm without doing damage. The plane between the scapula and the chest wall allows a gliding motion
What is in the axillary fascia? The artery, vein and nerves transiting from the torso to the upper extremity are tightly packed in the fascia
Describe the axillary artery name changes Once the subclavian artery passes the lower edge of the first rib it is the axillary artery. Once it crosses the lower border muscle of the teres major it becomes the brachial artery
What branches off of section 1 of the axillary artery? Superior thoracic artery
What branches off of section 2 of axillary artery? Thoracoacromial artery and lateral thoracic artery
What branches off of section 3 of axillary artery? subscapular, anterior circumflex humeral and posterior circumflex humeral artery
Where does the thoracodorsal artery run? With the thoracodorsal nerve to latissimus dorsi
What does the subscapular artery branch into? The thoracodorsal and circumflex scapula
True or False: Tumores skip lesions False: tumors don't skip lesions. Can't get to 1 unless it traveled to 2 alread.
What is a simple mastectomy? Removing breast from the wall
Radical mastectomy? Remove the pectoralis major and minor with all of the contents in the axilla from the apex down to the base
Modified radical mastectomy? Breast removed with fascia anteriorly of the pectoralis major muslce. Other version: Removing pectoralis minor or remove breast with pectorial fascia and lymph nodes from level 3.
How many roots, trunks, divisions and cords are there of the brachial plexus? 5 roots, 3 trunks, 6 divisions, and 3 cords
Where do the divisions occur? Below the clavicle
Where are the trunks located? In the supraclavicular fossa
What makes up the superior trunk? Middle? Inferior? Superiro: C5 and C6. Middle: C7. Inferior: C8 and T1
Origin of lateral cord and splits From superior and middle trunk. Splits into muscular cutaneous nerve and contributes to median nerve
Origin of posterior cord and spilts Superior, Middle and Inferior trunk. Splits into axillary nerve and radial nerve
Origin of medial cord and splits Inferior trunk and splits into ulnar nerve and contributes to median nerve
What are the side branches of C5? Dorsal scapular nerve, branch to phrenic nerve, branch that contributes to long thoracic nerve, branch that innervates longus colli and scalene muscle
Describe the long thoracic nerve Comes off C5 to C7. Goes to serratus anterior. Protracts the scapula: Brings your arms forward. clinically important in winged scapula
What does the suprascapular nerve come off of? Off of the superior trunk
What does the subclavius nerve come off of? Off of superior trunk
What does the lateral pectoral nerve come off of? Medial pectoral nerve? The lateral cord and the medial cord respectively
True or False: Anytime a muscle crosses a joint, it can have action at that joint True
What part of the brachial plexus is responsible for all the muscles crossing the elbow? Upper brachial plexus: C5-C7.
Where does the musculocutaneous nerve run? Between the biceps and brachilis muscle then becomes a sensory nerve called the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (doesn't make it to thumb)
When does the median nerve branch? Doesn't branch until it passes the elbow and involves pronation and finger flexors
What does the ulnar nerve do? Involved in wrist flexion
What does the axillary nerve do? Innervates rotator cuff and shoulder muscles (deltoid)
What does the radial nerve do? Extensors of the arm and forearm



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