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A & P Lab # 2

Exercise 4 of A & P lab book

QuestionAnswer
compound microscope a microscope which uses several lenses to diresct a narrow beam of light a thin specimen mounted on a glass slide
field of view a round viewing area of the lenes
total magnification of the microcope multiply the ocular lens magnification and the objective lens magnification to get this
What is the function of th iris diaphragm on a microscope? It regulates the amount of light passing through the condenser.
parfocal a design name of a microscope which means the microscope will stay in focus when changingfrom one objective to another
cell theory (1) All plants and animals are composed of cells (2) all cells come from preexsisting cells (3) cells are the smallest living units of life (4) homeostasis is the result of the coordinated activities of all cells in an organism
How many cells are you composed of? 75 Trillion
plasma membrane (cell membrane) the outer boundry of a cell
nucleus the central structure of a cell which holds the DNA
organelles all the internal structures of a cell
cytoplasm all the volume inside the plasma membrane but outside the nucleus
cytosol a liquid that suspends all organelles
microvilli small folds in the plasma membrane
centrioles paired organelles composed of microtubules
microtubules long hollow tubes made of protein
tubulin potein that makes up microtubules
centrosome the area surrounding the centrioles
spindle fibers radiate from the centrioles and help pulle the chromosomes from the nucleus apart
cytoskeleton made of microtubules and used for structural support
cilia short, hairlike, nonmembraneous projections that extend from the plasma membrane
ribosomes direct protein synthesis in the cell
chromatin uncoiled chromosomes consisting of DNA
nucleolus produces ribosomal RNA molecules for the creation of ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum an organelle that synthesises recycles organic molecules, transport materials within the cell and stores molecules
golgi apparatus series of flattened sacules adjoining to the ER, can modify and secrete proteins
exocytosis process in the Gogli where secretory vesicles pinch off sacules, fuse with the plasma membrane and then rupture to release their contents into extracellular fluid
lysosomes produced by Golgi and are filled with enymes that digest worn out cells or foreign invaders
peroxisomes vesicles filled with enzymes that break down fatty acids and other organic molecules, protect cell structure by breaking down hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water
mitochondria produce useful energy for the cell
matrix located in the mitochodria and produces ATP
mitosis the chromatin condenses into chromosomes and is equally divided between the two forming cells
cytokenisis separates the cytoplasm to produce two daughter cells
interphase the portion of the cell cycle that the cells are in most of the time includes G sub 0 phase, G sub 1 phase, and S phase
G sub 0 phase in this phase a cell is performing its specialized functions and is NOT preparing to divide
G sub 1 Phase in this phase the cell is carrying out protein syntesis, growth, and replication of organelles
S Phase this is the phase the cell replicates the DNA
chromatid the indivdual pieces of the chromosomes, one is the original and one is the duplicate
G sub 2 phase in this phase the cell synthesises protein and replicates the centriole pair
M phase the time of mitosis, nuclear material divides
prophase chromosomes shorten and move toward the middle of the cell and centriole pairs begin to move to opposite ends of the cell
metaphase chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate
anaphase separation of the chromosomes
cytokenisis marks the end of anaphase as a cleavage furrow develops along the metaphase plate and the plasma membrane pinches
teleophase each batch of chromosomes unwinds inside a newly formes nuclear envelope
Created by: kshaye17