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AP Final CCC

A&P Final, CCC PN105

What is anatomy? To cut up
What is physiology? The study of the functions of living organisms and their parts.
What is anatomical position? Erect standing posture with arms at sides and head/feet/palms turned forward.
What are the levels of organization? Chemical, Cellular, Tissues, Organs, Systems, Body
What are the directional terms? Superior/Inferior, Anterior/Posterior, Medial/Lateral, Proximal/Distal, Right/Left, Superficial/Deep
What are the anatomical planes? Sagittal (cut front to back), Frontal (cut side to side), Transverse (cut at waist)
What are the 2 main body cavities? ventral and dorsal
What makes the dorsal cavity? cranial and spinal cavities
What makes the ventral cavity? thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
What makes the thoracic cavity? mediastinum and pleural cavities
What levels of pH are acidic? below 7.0
What levels of pH are basic? above 7.0
What is arterial pH? 7.45
What is venous pH? 7.35
What are the 4 types of tissues? epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle
What is epithelial tissue? Covers the body, does not contain blood vessels
What are the types of epithelial tissue? Simple squamous, stratified squamous, simple columnar, stratified transitional, pseudostratified, and simple cuboidal
What is connective tissue? Most abundant and widely distributed; includes skin, membranes, muscles, bones, nerves, and all organs
What are the types of connective tissue? Areolar, adipose (fat), fibrous, bone, cartilage, blood, hematopoietic
What is muscle tissue? The movement specialist; has ability to shorten/contract
What are the types of muscle tissue? Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
What is nervous tissue? Provides rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions.
What are the types of nervous tissue? Neurons and glia
What are the organ systems? Circulatory, urinary, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, muscular, reproductive, nervous, integumentary, lymphatic, skeletal
What is the function of the integumentary system? protection, temperature regulation, chemical synthesis of vitamin D
What are the organs of the integumentary system? Skin and accessory organs
What is the function of the skeletal system? Provides framework of the body, support, and protection
What are the organs of the skeletal system? Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints.
What is the function of the muscular system? Movement and heat production
What are the organs of the muscular system? Muscles and tendons
What is the function of the nervous system? Perform primary body functions
What are the organs of the nervous system? Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
What is the function of the endocrine system? Similar to nervous system but slower moving; Secretes hormones, regulate metabolism, control growth, maintain fluid/electrolyte balance, maintain acid/base balance, reproduction
What are the organs of the endocrine system? Ductless glands. (All of the endocrine organs are glands, but not all glands are part of the endocrine system.)
What is the function of the circulatory system? Transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, nurtients, and hormones throughout the body
What are the organs of the circulatory system? Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
What is the function of the lymphatic system? Fluid movement and immunse system
What are the organs of the lymphatic system? Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, tonsils, thymus, spleen
What is the function of the respiratory system? Oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange
What are the organs of the respiratory system? Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
What is the function of the digestive system? Food breakdown and digestion; elimiate waste from body
What are the organs of the digestive system? Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large instestine, rectum, anus, teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver, glassbladder, pancreas, appendix
What is the function of the urinary system? Cleans blood of waste; removes waste from body
What are the organs of the urinary system? Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
What is the function of the reproductive system? Reproduction
What are the male reproductive organs? Testes (gonads), vas deferens, prostate, penis, scrotum, urethra
What are the female reproductive organs? Ovaries (gonads), uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, vulva, mammary glands
What is the largest structural unit of the body? Organ system
What is the smallest structural unit of the body? Atom or molecule
What is the heaviest organ of the body (16% of body weight? The skin
What is a mucous membrane? Epithelial cells that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior and secrete and thick, slippery material
Where are mucous membranes found on the body? Nasal cavity, mouth, vagina, penis, anus
What are bursae? Small, cushion-like sacs found alongside joints, cushioning the moving bones
What is the main function of a membrane? A thin layer or sheet that protects the body, lines cavities, covers inner surfaces of hollow organs, anchors organs to bones, and lubrication
What causes burns? Fire, UV light, electric current, and chemicals
What is a thrombus? Stationary blood clot
What are the blood types? A+/-, B+/-, O+/-, AB+/-
What is the univeral blood donor? O-
What is the universal blood recipient? AB+
What are erythrocytes? Red blood cells
What are leukocytes? White blood cells
Which side of the heart deals with oxygen-rich blood (leaving the heart)? Right side
Which side of the heart deals with oxygen-poor blood (returning to the heart)? Left side
What is the SA node (sinoatrial node)? The pacemaker; where impulse conduction of the heart begins; located on the wall of the right atrium near the superior vena cava
What is an artery? Carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
What is a vein? Carries oxygen-poor blood to the heart
What organs are in the upper respiratory tract? Nose, pharynx, larynx
What organs are in the lower respiratory tract? Trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
What is the diaphragm? Separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities; changes size and shape of chest during breathing
What are the 3 types of food processing? Digestion, Absorption, Metabolism
What is digestion? Process that breaks down complex nutrients into simpler ones
What is absorption? Movement of nutrients through the GI mucosa
What is metabolism? Process of uwing food as an energy source and building blocks
What is the pharynx? Throat; part of the respiratory and digestive systems
Where are the kidneys? Located under the muscles of the back and behind the parietal peritoneum of either side of the spinal column
What protects the kidneys? Lower rib cage
Which kidney is lower? Right
What is the urethra? Lowest part of the urinary tract; how urine leaves the body; part of the male reproductive system, removing semen from the body
What is voiding/micturition? Urination, the passage of urine from the body
What are cilia? Hair-like projections of cells
What are the 3 main parts of a cell? Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
Created by: cmp12345



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