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Nervous Tissue

Anatomy Chapter 12

What are the three divisions of the PNS? Somatic Nervous System, Autonomic Nervous System and Enteric Nervous System
Are somatic motor neurons voluntary or involuntary? voluntary
Are autonomic motor neurons voluntary or involuntary? involuntary
The somatic nervous system is associated with which four parts of the body? head, body, limbs and special senses
the autonomic nervous system is associated with which six parts of the body? viscera, stomach, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and lungs
the enteric nervous system is associated with which three parts of the GI tract? smooth muscle, glands, and endocrine cells
What is special about the enteric nervous system? it can act independently of the CNS, but CNS still knows what's happening.
what is the minimum voltage a cell must be in order for a voltage-gated ion channel to open? -55 mV
Hyperpolarization is due to which channels opening? K+ and chloride channels opening. Both mechanically and ligand gated channels.
Depolarization is due to which channels opening? Na+ or Ca+ channels.
In which phase does K+ rush out and the Na+ gates close? Repolarizing
The refractory period continues until what happens? The voltage gated Na+ channels come back to resting state.
What determines the impact of an action potential? the frequency of impulse, all action potentials are the same magnitude and strength.
what does Tetrodoxin do? it inserts into voltage-gated Na+ channels and blocks the nerve impulse from traveling.
What do Procaine and Lidocaine do? Block pain by blocking the opening of Na+ voltage gated channels so that pain is not transmitted.
What does ice do to the nerves? it slows the conduction of nerve impulse so that you do not feel as much pain.
During resting membrane potential, which of the activation gates and inactivation gates of Na+ voltage gated channels are open and which are closed? Activation gate is closed and inactivation gate is opened
Which voltage gated ion channel opens during the Depolarizing phase? the activation gate of the Na+ voltage gated channel opens
During repolarizing phase of an action potential, which gate opens and which gate closes? Which ions leave the cell? the inactivation gates of the Na+ voltage gated channel close and K+ voltage gated channels open sloooowwwllyy. K+ flows out.
What restores the resting membrane potential? K+ outflow during repolarizing phase.
What is the state of the Na+ and K+ voltage gated channel by the end of the repolarizing phase? Activation gate closed, inactivation gate opened. Inactivation gate opens after K+ restores membrane potential. The cell returns to resting state when the K+ gates close at the end of repolarizing phase.
what is the origin of graded potentials and action potentials? Graded: mainly in dendrites and cell body Action: at trigger zones and propagate along axon
What types of channels are involved in graded potentials and action potentials? Graded: Ligand-gated or mechanically gated Action: voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels
How do graded potentials and action potentials differ in amplitude size? Graded: depend on the strength of the stimulus. Action: All or none! all same size
How do graded potentials and action potentials differ in duration? Graded: longer Action: shorter
How do graded potentials and action potentials differ in refractory periods? Graded: doesn't have a refractory period, so summation can occur Action: has a refractory period so summation cannot occur.
Created by: 741750252



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