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The Lymphatic and Im

Body Functions Chapter 15 Page 365

The lymphatic system is a circulatory system
The lymphatic system transports fluid called lymph
The lymphatic system consists of: 1. Lymph 2. Lymph vessels 3. Lymph nodes 4. Tonsils 5. Spleen 6. Thymus gland 7. Peyer's patches 8. Red bone marrow.
The primary functions of the lymphatic system are: 1. Drain fluid from tissue spaces that escapes (oozes) from capillaries. 2. Transport fats from the digestive system to the blood. 3. Produce lymphocytes. 4. Devlope immunities.
The fluid that escapes (seeps) from capillaries into tissue spaces is called interstitial fluid.
The result of insufficient draining of interstitial fluid is edema (swelling).
Concentrations of lymph vessels are called lymph nodes or lymph glands.
Lymph nodes are the shape of beans.
Lymph nodes are found along the length of the lymphatic system.
The three areas of lymph node concentrations are: 1. Cervical (neck). 2. Axillary (armpits). 3. Inguinal or iliac (groin).
The circulation of lymph through the lymph vessels is maintained by normal skeletal muscle contractions.
Swelling of the lymph nodes is called lymphadenopathy.
The three groups of tonsils are the: 1. Palatine tonsils. 2. Pharyngeal tonsils. 3. Lingual tonsils.
The palatine tonsils are located in the tonsillar fossa between the pharyngopalatine and glossopalatine arches on either side of the posterior os of the oral cavity.
The pharyngeal tonsils are AKA adenoids.
The pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) are located close to the internal orifice of the nasal cavity (nasopharynx).
The lingual tonsils are located on the posterior surface of the tongue at its base.
In these positions the tonsils form a protective ring against harmful microorganisms that might enter the nose or oral cavity.
The spleen is ________ in shape. oval (calzone).
The spleen is the single largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body.
The spleen is located in the superior left corner of the abdominal cavity.
The functions of the spleen include: 1. Filters the blood to phagocytize bacteria, worn out platelets (thrombocytes), and erythrocytes (RBCs). 2. Releases hemoglobin (Hgb.) from the worn out erythrocytes (RBCs). 3. Acts as a reservoir for blood. 4. Produces lymphocytes.
The thymus is a bilobed mass of lymphatic tissue located in the mediastinum.
The function of the thymus is the maturation of T lymphocytes (T cells).
The thymus reaches maximum size during puberty and decreases in size as we age
The Peyer’s patches are AKA aggregated lymphatic follicles.
The Peyer’s patches resemble tonsils.
The Peyer’s patches are found in the walls of the small intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum).
The Peyer’s patches are responsible for preventing bacteria from infecting and penetrating the walls of the small intestine.
Red bone marrow is found in the: 1. Sternum. 2. Vertebrae. 3. Ribs. 4. Ilia. 5. The proximal and distal portions of each humerus and femur.
Red bone marrow is the site of stem cells that are ever capable of dividing and producing blood cells (hematopoiesis).
Some of these cells become leukocytes such as: 1. Monocytes (phagocytic). 2. Neutrophils (phagocytic). 3. Eosinophils (toxins, helminths). 4. Lymphocytes (produce antibodies). 5. Basophils (release histamine and heparin). Monkeys never eat little bananas.
Lymphocytes are categorized as: 1. B lymphocytes (B cells). 2. T lymphocytes (T cells).
The B lymphocytes (B cells) mature in the bone marrow.
Some B lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies.
Antibodies are immune proteins that bind to antigens and tag the antigens for destruction by the immune system.
An antigen is any foreign protein that triggers an immune response such as pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Antibodies are specialized.
Specialized means that only a specific antigen (virus, bacteria, fungus, etc.) will be attacked.
Antibody production is the only mechanism that can defeat a viral infection.
Other B lymphocytes (B cells) become dormant and are responsible for a more potent and rapid antibody response during subsequent exposures to the same antigen.
These dormant B lymphocytes (B cells) are called memory cells.
Memory cells are responsible for a lasting immunity.
Types of antibodies include 1. IgG. 2. IgM. 3. IgA. 4. IgD. 5. IgE.
Ig stands for immunoglobulin.
The B lymphocytes (B cells) will develop antibodies when: 1. A person contracts a pathological antigen. 2. A person is exposed to an attenuated or inactivated pathological antigen.
Attenuated means that the antigen has been crippled.
Inactivated means that the antigen is dead.
An attenuated or inactivated antigen does not cause disease but will trigger the B lymphocytes (B cells) to produce antibodies.
Administration of an attenuated or inactivated antigen is called a: 1. Vaccination. 2. Inoculation. 3. Immunization.
Booster immunizations are designed to stimulate the production of more memory B cells.
1. MMR stands for measles (rubeola), mumps (parotitis), and rubella (German measles).
Common trade names for the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine include: Priorix, Tresivac, and Trimovax.
2. OPV (IPV) stands for oral (inactivated) polio vaccine.
3. DPT stands for diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
Common trade names for the diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) vaccine include: DTaP - ages 1-7 (Daptacel) Tdap - booster (Adacel, Boostrix)
4. VZV stands for varicella zoster virus.
The varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox.
A common trade name for the varicella zoster vaccine is Varivax.
5. HAV stands for the hepatitis A virus.
Common trade names for the hepatitis A vaccine include: Havrix and Vaqta.
6. HBV stands for the hepatitis B virus.
Common trade names for the hepatitis B vaccine include: Hepatovax, Energix B, and Recombivax HB.
7. MCV stands for meningococcal vaccine.
The meningococcal vaccine (MCV) prevents bacterial meningitis.
Common trade names for the meningococcal vaccine (MCV) include Menomune and Menactra.
MCV4 is recommended for ages 2-55.
MPSV4 is recommended for ages over 55
8. Hib stands for haemophilus influenzae b vaccine.
The haemophilus influenzae b vaccine (Hib) prevents bacterial meningitis.
9. PPV stands for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) prevents pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis.
Common trade names for the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) include: Prevnar, Pneumovax 23, and Pnu-Immune 23.
10. HPV stands for human papilloma virus.
The human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause genital warts.
A common trade name for the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is Gardasil.
11. Herpes zoster is also known as shingles.
A common trade name for the herpes zoster vaccine is Zostavax.
12. RV stands for rotavirus.
The rotavirus (RV) causes profound diarrhea in infants and children.
A common trade name for the rotavirus (RV) vaccine is RotaTeq.
13. Smallpox. The last case of smallpox was in 1977. The smallpox vaccine is not routinely administered.
A blood test used to determine the amount of a specific antibody present is called an antibody titer.
CD8 T lymphocytes (killer cells) destroy body cells that have been invaded by viruses and destroy cancer cells.
CD4 T lymphocytes (helper cells) increase the activity of killer cells, stimulate B lymphocytes (B cells), and activate monocytes.
A CD4 T lymphocyte count less than 200 indicates the transition from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Created by: willowsalem