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Gen. Med2

Test 2

Endocrine system does what? releases chemicals into blood and other bodily fluids.
Nervous system does what? regulates the body's response to change; combines electrical and local chemical signals.
What are neurons? main functional cells of nervous system; receives and responds to sensory information.
Spinal cord: extension of nervous system tissue that extends from base of brain through center of spine.
Nerves: bundles of axons that extend from neurons in the brain or spinal cord to every area in the body.
Afferent neurons accept what? and toward what? stimuli - toward the CNS.
Efferent neurons effect what? and away from what? change - away from CNS.
Sensation is what? the detection and signaling of change bye sensors.
Integration is what? combining and coordinating sensory signals.
Percepts are what? brain's record of event.
Interneurons are what? relay signals within CNS.
What are the three functions of the nervous system? sensation, integration, and reaction.
Reaction is what? generation of outgoing signals in response to an incoming signal.
Motor (efferent) neurons do what? carry signals to the heart, blood vessels, and skeletal muscles.
Effectors are what? tissues and organs that respond to motor neuron signals (not part of nervous system).
Is the heart muscle part of the nervous system? No.
Are cranial nerves part of the peripheral or the central nervous system? the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is divided into what structurally? central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system consists of what? brain and spinal cord.
The spinal cord responds to what? to some sensory signals, passes others between brain and body.
Spinal cord ends where? in the cauda equina (fan of nerves).
The brain has how many neurons and neuroglia? 100 billion neurons and 30 trillion neuroglia.
The brain stem does what? central cleaning house for nerve signals; also regulates core physiological processes.
Cerebellum does what? regulates body movement.
Diencephalon does what? contains the hypothalamus and thymus.
Cerebrum is what? home of the consciousness.
Peripheral nervous system contains what? of nerves and sensory receptors.
The peripheral nervous system includes what? the autonomic and somatic divisions.
The autonomic division of the PNS receives information from where? visceral receptors.
The autonomic division regulates what? the activity of smooth and cardiac muscle and glands.
The somatic division receives information from where? all other types of sensory receptors.
The somatic division regulates what? the activity of the skeletal muscle.
Which neurons send signals to the brain? sensory neurons.
Sensory receptors do what? detect change.
Nerves are what? bundles of axons that transmit information.
Cranial nerves originate from where? the brain.
Spinal nerves originate from where? the spinal cord.
Somatic nervous system is also called what? voluntary.
Autonomic nervous system is also called what? involuntary.
Collections in the PNS are called what? ganglia.
Collection of neuron cell bodies in the CNS are called what? nuclei.
Which type of cell forms the myelin sheath of brain neurons? oligodendrocytes.
Gray matter is found where? in the CNS.
Neurons are found where? in the cortex, spinal cord, and nuclei.
White matter is what? bundles of myelinated axons.
Tracts are what? bundles of axons that travel from one region to another.
Gllal cells form what? support tissue that glues neurons together and maintains homeostasis of extracellular fluid.
Astrocytes are what? neuronal stem cells.
Microglla is what? a scavenger cell.
Ependymal cells are what? liner cells.
Ependymal cells produce what? cerebrospinal fluid.
Nerves contain three connective tissue layers what are they? endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium.
The endoneurium surrounds what? individual axons.
The perineurium surrounds what? bundles of axons.
The epineurium surrounds what? bundles of fascicles (the nerve).
Which connective tissue layer touches the myelin? endoneurium.
Which membrane is attached to the cranium? the outer layer of the dura matter.
The innermost of the dura matter folds to form the what? falx cerbri and tentorium cerbelli.
Deep to the dura matter are two more meninges and what? the arachnoid matter and the pia matter.
Cerebrospinal fluid does what? cushions and mediates exchanges of substances with blood meninges
The dura matter is what? the tough membrane.
The arachnoid matter is what? thick membrane.
The arachnoid matter does what? stabilizes the brain and spinal cord.
Pia matter is what? thin membrane.
Pia matter fits what? tightly to surface irregularities.
Each ventricle contains what? choroid plexus.
The choroid plexus does what? synthesizes cerebrospinal fluid.
Name the connecting vessel between the third and fourth ventricles. Cerebral aqueduct.
The ventricular system does what? circulates cerebrospinal fluid.
The blood-brain barrier acts like what? a firewall between blood and brain.
The blood-brain barrier is what? low permeability of brain capillaries.
Cerebral lobes are created by what? fissures and sulci; joined by corpus callosum.
Fissures and sulci divide the cerebrum into how many lobes? four.
Which lobe is more anterior - the temporal lobe or occipital lobe? temporal lobe.
Which area receives input directly from the primary visual cortex? the visual association area.
For each sense there is what? a primary sensory area and unimodal association area.
The primary sensory area receives what? raw data.
Unimodal association area does what? integrates raw data.
The limbic system includes what? structures involved in emotion and memory.
The limbic system is also called what? the "emotional brain".
The hippocampus creates what? new memories.
Amygdala controls what? emotion.
Amygdala integrates what? sensory input with memory.
Cingulate gyrus integrates what? and adds what? sensory input and adds emotional content, especially reaction to pain.
Mamillary body integrates what? and adds what? sensory input, especially odor, and adds emotional content.
Which structure curves over the corpus callosum? cingulate gyrus.
Which basal nuclei are located very close to the lateral ventricles? caudate nuclei.
Do signals leaving the visual association area go the posterior association area or directly to Broca's area? the posterior association area.
Name three primary components of the diencephalon. Thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland.
Diencephalon controls what? core vegetative functions (thirst, hunger, sexual drive)
Thalamus is for what? relay station for sensory and motor signals; secondary role in higher brain functions.
Hypothalamus regulates what? and secretes what? core vegetative functions, autonomic system and diumal rhythms and secretes hormones.
Pineal gland secretes what? melatonin.
The brain stem is what? the lowest, most primitive part of the brain.
As you sniff stinky cheese and make a face, which sensory nerve is active? Olfactory nerve.
Cerebellum does what? monitors and adjusts musculoskeletal activies while they are underway by comparing sensory signals with information from cortex about desired position of body parts.
The brain is part of what? CNS.
The cranial nerves are part of what? PNS.
How many layers of the dura mater surround the spinal cord? one.
Epidural space is what? gap between dura and bone that keeps drugs from migrating.
Dural sheath is what? extension where spinal fluids can be safely drawn.
Which branch carries signals for the autonomic nervous system? communicating branch.
Roots: ventral and dorsal.
Branches: ventral, dorsal, and communicating.
Which thoracic nerve participates in a plexus? T1.
Branches of nerves from several spinal cord levels intertwine to produce what? from what? a plexus, from which fibers recombine to form peripheral nerves.
Which neuron is always cholinergic- preganglionic or postganglionic? preganglionic.
To reach target tissue from the CNS, the somatic nervous system needs what? a single neuron.
The autonomic system requires two what? neurons.
The parasympathetic division activates what? the rest-reproduce-digest response.
The sympathetic division activates what? the flight-or-fight response.
Which division increases the heart rate? sympathetic.
What is the effect of parasympathetic activation on the trachea and bronchi? it causes them to constrict.
About 80 percent of total parasympathetic motor signal outflow is carried by what? vagus nerve.
Both preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system use what? acetylcholine.
Which organs are innervated by the cervical ganglia? eye, salivary glands, heart, and lungs.
Communicating branches connect what? the ventral branch of thoracic and lumbar spine nerves to the sympathetic chain ganglia.
Does the hypogastric plexus serve the sympathetic division, parasympathetic division, or both? both.
Which pathway is formed by neurons that cross over in the medulla oblongata- the anterior corticospinal tract or the lateral corticospinal tract? lateral corticopsinal tract.
What are the components of a reflex? sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector.
What are the two broad categories of neurological disorders? life threatening and chronic.
Life threatening neurological disorders are? encephalitis, meningitis, and stroke.
Chronic neurological disorders are? multiple sclerosis, migraines, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and epilepsy.
A stroke is also called what? cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
What happens with a stroke? lack of oxygen to the brain leading to damage.
A stroke is caused by what? a clot or aneurysm.
FAST stands for what? F-face weakness, A-arms weakness, S-speech difficulties, T-time to call 911.
Gullain Barre syndrome is what? an autoimmune disorder.
Gullain Barre syndrome is characterized by what? sudden onset of bilateral muscle weakness and deep tendon reflexes, progresses to ascending paralysis starting in the legs.
Encephalitis is generally what? a viral infection.
Meningitis (aseptic) is a common form of what? infection involving the brain and CSF.
Meningitis (aseptic) can spread through direct contact with what? respiratory secretions.
Meningitis (bacterial) is also called what? meningococcal meningitis.
Meningitis (bacterial) you need a what? lumbar puncture.
Alzheimer's is a type of what? dementia.
Alzheimer's causes problems with what? memory, thinking, and behavior.
Alzheimer's the most common form of what? dementia.
Alzheimer's disease accounts for how many percent of dementia cases? 50 to 80 percent.
Alzheimer's is what? the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is severe involvement in what? of areas that control judgement, inhibition, impulse control, mood, and memory.
CTE is what? a dementia-like brain disease afflicting athletes exposed to repeated trauma.
CTE is showing a problem is what athletes? NFL players.
Suicide and premature death is associated with what disease? CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy).
A brain with CTE is what? riddled with dense clumps of a protein called tau.
Multiple sclerosis is what? a neurodegenerative disease.
MS is demyelination of what? the brain's neurons.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is also called what? Lou Gehrig's disease.
In ALS the neurons die, increasing muscle atrophy.
Generalized seizures involve what? both hemispheres of the brain (clonic-tonic).
Partial seizures (focal) involve what? a portion of brain.
Partial seizure you have a loss of what? attention and awareness.
Epilepsy is when a person experiences what? two or more seizures during a individual's lifetime.
Epilepsy is what? abnormal electrical activity in the brain causes convulsions.
Status epilepticus is what? continuous clonic-tonic seizures lasting more than 30 minutes and the individual does not regain consciousness between attacks.
Is status epilepticus a medical emergency? yes.
Spina bifida is what? a congenital disorder.
Spina bifida is caused by what? incomplete development of the spinal column during the first month of pregnancy.
Bell's Palsy is a disease that affects what? the facial cranial nerve (CNVII)
Bell's palsy is characterized by what? facial distortion- altered facial expressions.
What are the traumatic brain conditions? epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Epidural hematoma is what? blood from torn meningeal artery collects between the external layer or the dura and the undersurface of the skull.
Subdural hematoma follows what? a blow that jerks the brain.
Subdural hematoma is what? cerebral vein tear creating space for itself at the dural-arahnoid junction.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is what? ruptured internal carotid aneurysm.
What are the main categories for mental health medications? meds that treat schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, ADHD.
Created by: danreid