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Anatomy - Ch. 6-7

Anatomy - Chapter 1 - Bone Tissue/Axial

Osteology study of bones
The skeletal system is composed of what? Bones, cartilages, and ligaments
Skeletal System functions are? Support, Movement, Protection, Blood formation, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, and detoxification
Ossesous Tissue (bone) A connective tissue in which the matrix is hardened by calcium phosphate and other minerals.
Compact (dense) bone outer shell of dense white osseous tissue
Spony (cancellous) bone internal, more loosely organized
Disphysis shaft
medullary cavity space
epiphysis expanded head at each end
epiphyseal plate (line) shows where the growth began
nutrient foramina how blood vessels end into the bone
osteons cylindrical unites inside compact bone
Concetric lamellae Around a central canal where matrix is arranged.
Lacunae Occupied by osteocytes, which are connected to each other by canaliculi.
In childhood, bones increase in length by means of the _____ _____ of cartilage in the epiphyseal plates. Interstitial growth
In adulthood, long bones no longer grow in length, but can increase in thickness by ___ ____, the addition of osseous tissue to the surface. Appositional growth
Osteoporosis Is a disease in which the bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
Osteoporosis translates into... porous bones :OOOOOOOO
The two regions of the skeleton are Axial and Appendicular skeleton
Bone totals: 270 bones at birth, 206 by adulthood
Sesamoid bones Bones that form within some tendons in response to stress
How many vertebrae are there in the vertebral column? 33
How many discs are there in the vertebral column? 23
The Saacrum is part of what skeletal region? Axial Skeleton
Petrous translates into what? Stone
The vertebrae are divided into what 5 groups? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, and Coccyx
How many Cervical vertebrae? 7
How many Thoracic vertebrae? 12
How many Lumbar vertebrae? 5
How many Sacral Vertebrae? 5, they are fused into a single adult bone called the Sacrum.
How many Coccygeal vertebrae? 4, fused into the coccyx "tailbone"
The vertebral column has 4 bends named what? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Pelvic Curvatures.
How do you know when you are looking at cervical vertebra? Small, only vertebrae to have transverse foramen in each transverse process, and a forked spinous process.
C1 is the what? Atlas
C2 is the what? Axis
The Axis has a unique superior processes called what? Dens
What vertebrae are specialized for rib attachment and have facets? Thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae look like what animal? GIRAFFES
Lumbar vertebrae look like what animal? MOOSE
How would you know when you are looking at lumbar vertebrae? Heavy bodies, squarish spinous process.
A bony enclosure for the lungs and heart, and is composed of the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum? The thoracic cage
The sternum consists of what? Suprasternal notch, manubrium, body, xiphoid process, and costal cartilages.
There are how many ribs? 12
Ribs 1-7 are called what? True ribs, which connect to the sternum by their own costal cartilage.
Rubs 8-12 are called what? False ribs, they do not have independent attachments to the sternum.
Ribs 11-12 are called what and why? Floating ribs, because they have no costal cartilages, and do not attach to the sternum at all.
The skull consists of how many bones? 22
Skull bones are sometimes joined by what? Sutures
There are 6 cavities within the skull, what are they? Cranial, orbits, nasal, buccal (mouth), middle-,and inner-ear cavities.
The cranial cavity is enclosed by the cranium (braincase), how many bones compose the cranium? 8 bones. 1 Frontal, 1 occipital, 2 parietal, 1 spehenoid, 2 temporal, and 1 ethmoid.
Calvaria is where? roof of the cranial cavity
Base is where? floor of the cranial cavity
The parietal bones are bordered by four sutures, what are they? Sagittal, coronal, lambdoid, and squamous.
Created by: sinteque



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