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Chapter 6: Bones

bones of the skeleton have 2 main groups axial and appendicular
axial skeleton skull, spine and ribcage
appendicular skeleton arms and legs
4 bone shapes long, short, flat and irregular
long bones longer than they are wide (humerus)
short bones cube shaped (ankle and wrist) and sesamoid bones within tendons (patella)
flat bones thin, flat and slightly rounded (skull)
irregular bones complicated shapes (vertebrae)
bone markings structural features that play a role in bone function: projections, depression and openings
projections for muscle and ligament attachment tuberosity, crest, trochanter, line, tubercle, epicondyle, spine, process
tuberosity rounded projection
crest narrow, prominent ridge
trochanter large, blunt, irregular surface (head of femur)
line narrow ridge of bone
tubercle small, rounded projection
epicondyle raised area above a condyle
spine sharp, slender projection
process any bony prominence
4 projections that help form joints head, facet, condyle, and ramus
head bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
facet smooth, nearly flat articular surface
condyle rounded articular projection
ramus arm-like bar
depressions and openings meatus, sinus, fossa, groove, fissure, and foramen
meatus canal-like passageway
sinus cavity within a bone
fossa shallow, basin-like depression
groove furrow
fissure narrow, slit-like opening
poramen round or oval opening through a bone
bone structure bones have layers that differ for long, short, flat and irregular bones
bone textures compact and spongy
compact bone dense outer layer
spongy bone honeycomb of trabeculae
structure of long bone diaphysis, epiphyses, periosteum, endosteum
diaphysis shaft of long bone; compact bone collar that surrounds medullary cavity; contains yellow marrow
epiphyses expanded ends with a spongy bone interior, epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate, articular (hyaline)cartilage on joint surfaces
2 membranes of long bone periosteum and endosteum
periosteum outer fibrous layer, inner osteogenic layer; nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via nutrient foramen
osteogenic layer of periosteum osteoblasts, osteoclast and osteogenic cells
endosteum delicate membrane on internal surfaces of bone; osteoblasts and osteoclasts
structure of short, flat and irregular bones periosteum covers compact bone on outside; endosteum covers spongy bone within, spongy bone in flat bones = diploe, bone marrow between trabeculae
diploe spongy bone in flat bones
location of hemopoietic tissue (red bone marrow) cavities of adults; trabecular cavities of the heads of femur and humurus; trabecular cavities of diploe (spongy bone in flat bones)
cells of bone osteoblasts, osetoclasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells
osteoblasts bone forming cells
osteoclasts cells that break down (resorb) bone matrix
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteogenic cells stem cells
microscopic anatomy of bone haversian system/osteon: structural unit
lamella compact bone; concentric, column-like matrix tubes
central (haversian) canal contains blood vessels and nerves
perforating (Volkmanns) canals connect central and peripheral canals
lacunae small cavities that contain osteocytes
canaliculi hairlike canals that connect lacunae
bone development osteogenesis/ossification
osteogenesis/ossification bone tissue formation; 3 stages: bone formation, postnatal bone growth, bone remodeling and repair
bone formation begins in second month of growth
postnatal bone growth until early adulthood
bone remodeling and repair lifelong
endochondral ossification cartilage (endocondral) bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage; forms most of skeleton (except flat bones); uses hyaline cartilage models; requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage before ossification
postnatal bone growth interstitial and appositional
interstitial growth postnatal; increases length of bones
appositional growth postnatal; increases thickness and remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts and osteoclasts on bone surfaces
interstitial growth of long bones epiphyseal plate cartilage organizes into 4 functional zones: proliferation, hypertrophic, calcification, ossification
proliferation zone cartilage cells undergo mitosis
hypertrophic zone older cartilage cells enlarge
calcification zone matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, matrix begins deteriorating
ossification zone new bone formation occurs
classification of bone fractures position of bone ends, completeness of break, orientation of break along axis, penetration through skin
position of bone ends after fracture nondisplaced: ends retain normal position displaced: ends out of alignment
completeness of break complete: broken all the way through incomplete: not broken all the way through
orientation of break to the long axis of bone linear: parallel to long axis transverse: perpendicular to long axis
whether or not bone ends penetrate skin compound (open): ends penetrate simple (closed): ends do not penetrate
Created by: c8linpluemacher



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