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BIO202 - Ch 26 - Fluid, Electrolyte, Acid/Base P1- Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

Infants are __% water, average young man is __%, average woman __, & elderly is __. 73%, 60%, 50%, 45%
Of all body tissues __ is least hydrated. Adipose
Skeletal muscle is __% water. 75%
People with more muscle mass have __ water. more
List major fluid compartments & the % water there. Intracellular (ICF) 40%, Extracellular (ECF 20%), & is plasma or interstitial (IF)
Nonelectrolytes Usually covalently bonded solutes - no electric charge & doesn't dissociate in solution - lipids, urea, & creatine
Electrolytes Dissociate into ions in water - conductive salts, acids, bases & some proteins.
__ have greater osmotic power than __. electrolytes, nonelectrolytes
__ have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts. electrolytes
Electrolyte concentration expressed as __. milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)
The chief cation in extracellular fluid is __ & chief anion is __. Sodium - chloride
Chief cation in ICF is __ & major anion is __. potassium - hydrogen phosphate (HPO42-)
__ & __ ion concentration is opposite between ECF & ICF. sodium - potassium
__ account for most bulk mass in body fluids. nonelectrolytes (phospholipids, cholesterol, & triglycerides).
Exchange & mixing of body fluids regulated by __. osmotic & hydrostatic pressures
Ion fluxes are restricted & ions moved selectively by __. active transport or through channels.
Increasing ECF solute content causes __. a shift of water out of the cells
Decreasing ECF solute content causes __. a shift of water into the cells.
Nutrient & waste exchange occurs through __. interstitial fluid (IF)
Typical water intake per day? 2500 ml
Insensible water loss Water that vaporizes out of lungs or skin.
Rise in plasma osmolarity triggers? (1) thirst, (2) ADH
Where is the thirst center? hypothalamus
What causes dry mouth? Rise in plasma oncotic pressure (less water leaves blood stream)
4 ways body loses water (1) urine, (2) evaporation from lungs/skin, (3) sweat, (4) feces
4 ways solutes are gained (1) ingestion, (2) secretion from cells, (3) respiration, (4) metabolism
3 ways solutes are lost (1) urinary excretion, (2) respiration, (3) sweating
Metabolic wastes Uric acid (from nucleic acids), ammonia (amino acids), urea (ammonia & CO2)
What in hypothalamic thirst center triggers thirst? Osmoreceptors losing water by osmosis to hypertonic ECF, angiotension II, etc.
When we drink, what satisfies thirst sensation? mucosa moistened & stretch receptors in stomach
When ADH levels are low, water is __. not reabsorbed - allowed to pass through - dilute urine
Decrease in ECF osmolarity __ ADH release. inhibits
Increase in ECF osmolarity __ ADH release. stimulates
Decrease in blood pressure causes __ to secrete ADH posterior pituitary - large loss of blood
Another name for ADH Vasopressin - because it constricts arteries & increases BP
oliguria decreased urine output
hypotonic hydration over hydration - cells swell - hyponatremia
hyponatremia low ECF Na+ - cells swell
Increased capillary permeability usually due to __. ongoing inflammatory response
Edema caused by hindered fluid return to blood usually reflects __. inbalance in colloid osmotic pressures on both sides of capillary membrane.
Hypoproteinemia Unusually low levels of plasma proteins - resutls in tissue edema - fluids forced out of capillary beds, but fail to return. Interstial space congested.
What impact does edema have cardiovascularily? Decreases blood volume & BP
Electrolyte balance usually refers to? Salt balance in body - sodium, potassium, calcium
pica Appetite for abnormal substances - like chalk
__ "has the most to say" about renal regulation of sodium ion conentration in ECF. aldosterone
65% of Na+ in renal filtrate is reabsorbed __. in the proximal tubules of kidneys & 25% more in loops of Henle
When aldosterone is __ all filtered Na+ is reabsorbed. high
Aldosterone promotes both __ & __ retention. sodium & water
Even though Na+ excretion always results in water excretion__. doesn't always result in Na+ excretion.
Most important trigger for aldosterone release from adrenal cortex. renin - angiotension mechanism
Renin-angiotension mechanism is mediated by __. juxtaglomerular apparatus of renal tubules.
Renin releases from kidneys in response to? Decrease NaCl concentration, increase BP, or ANS.
Renin catalyzes reactions to produce __ which prompts __ release. angiotensin II, aldosterone
High renal BP & NaCl depresses release of __. renin
Elevated K+ levels in ECF stimulates adrenal cortical cells __. to release aldosterone
Principal effects of aldosterone. Diminish urinary output and increases blood volume.
Principal effects of angiotension II. Raise blood volume & BP.
People with Addison's lose __. NaCl & water to urine.
Primary influence of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. ANP - reduces BP & BV by inhibiting nearly all vasoconstriction, & Na+ & water retention.
natriuretic salt excreting
ANP promotes (1) excretion of Na+ & H20 by kidneys, (2) supression of ADH, renin, & aldosterone, (3) relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Estrogens are similar to __. aldosterone - enhances NaCl reabsorption by renal tubules.
Created by: Ladystorm

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