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BIO202 - Ch 25 - Urinary System - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

Kidneys lie __. in retroperitoneal position - T12 - L3
The right kidney lies __. slightly lower than left & is crowded by liver.
The ureter, blood vessels, lymphatics, & nerves join kidney where? At hilum & occupy the sinus.
Renal ptosis When kidneys fall to a lower position - ureters can become kinked.
hydronephrosis Back up of urine from ureteral obstruction - can kill tissue in kidneys.
Medullary/renal pyramids Striped w/parallel bundles of microscopic urine - collecting tubules & capillaries - Base & papilla
Renal columns separate? Pyramids
Calyces Cup shaped areas that enclose papillae of pyramids & collect urine which drains from papillae & empties into renal pelvis.
Urine is pumped/propelled by __. peristalsis
Pyelitis Infection of renal pelvis & calyces
pyelonephritis Kidney infection that affects entire kidney.
Kidney cortex Wraps around the medulla
Kidney medulla Central region
Renal capsule Tough coat of connective tissue that encloses whole kidney.
Nephrons Functional heart of kidneys - filters water & solutes from blood
More than a __ nephrons are packed inside each kidney. Million
Filtration starts at __ where the nephron wall balloons around a tiny cluster of blood capillaries called __. renal corpuscle - glomerulus
The ballooned, cuplike region, the __ __ , receives water & solutes filtered from blood. Bowman's (glomerular) capsule
Peritubular capillaries Merge into venules which carry filtered blood out of the kidneys.
More than 90% of blood entering kidney perfuses __. the renal cortex
The endothelium of glomerular capillaries is __. fenestrated
podocytes Branching epithelial cells that cling to glomerular capillaries & filtrate enters between their "foot" processes.
PCT Proximal convoluted tubule - coiled tubule that includes the loop of Henle
DCT Distal convoluted tubule
Intercalculated cells have __. abundant microvilli w/brush border - cubodial
The 2 varients (A&B) of intercalated cells. Play major role in acid-base balance of blood
Principal cells help maintain __. body's water & Na+ balance
85% of nephrons in kidneys are? Cortical nephrons - located entirely in cortex
Nephrons in the cortex-medulla junction. Juxtamedullary nephrons - concentrate urine - their loops of Henle invade the medulla deeply.
Each nephron is closely associated with __. the glomerulus & peritubular capillaries.
The glomerulus is specialized for __. filtration
How does glomerulus differ from all other capillary beds? Fed by & drained by arteries - afferent & efferent.
Why is BP high in glomerulus? High resistant arterioles & afferent bigger than efferent = increased pressure to filter.
The peritubular capillaries __ pressure. Low - porous capillaries that absorb solutes & water from tubule cells.
Vasa recta Capillary branches that supply loops of Henle in kidney medulla.
The glomerus produces __ & the peritubular capillaries __. Filtrate - reclaims most of that filtrate
granular cells JG cells - smooth muscle cells w/secretory granules containing renin - act as mechanoreceptors.
Macula densa Chemoreceptors that respond to change in NaCl in filtrate.
Where is the filtration membrane? Lies between blood & interior of glomerular capsule.
The fenestrations of filtration membrane allow passage of __. all plasma components except blood cells
Glomerular mesangial cells Engulf & degrade macromolecules that get hung up in filtration membrane - can contract & change surface area of capillaries.
How does filtrate & urine differ? Filtrate contains everything in blood plasma except proteins, urine contains mostly metabolic wastes & unneeded substances.
3 major kidney processes that adjust blood composition. Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption & tubular secretion.
Once urine has formed, it flows from kidney into a tubelike (1)__, then into a storage organ, the (2)__. It leaves teh bladder through the (3) __, a muscular tube that opens at the body surface. (1) ureter, (2) urinary bladder, (3) urethra
Afferent arteriole Delivers blood to each nephron - "carries toward"
Glomeruli Capillaries inside a glomerular capsule & can verge to form an efferent arteriole.
Efferent arteriole "Carries away from".
Kidneys can filter a large amount of blood quickly because (1) blood pressure in (1) __ is higher than in other capillaries & (2) glomerular capillaries are highly (2)__. (1) glomerular capillaries, (2) highly permeable
Most sodium & water are reabsorbed in the __. proximal tubule - the part of the nephron closest to the glomerulus - Na+ pumps transport Na+ ions from filtrate inside tube into tissue fluid outside.
Glomerular filtration Passive process - hydrostatic pressure forces fluids & solutes through membrane - simple mechanical filters.
Why is glomerulus more efficient filter than other capillary beds? Large surface area & BP is higher so higher net filtration pressure.
What passes freely into glomerular capsule. Water, glucose, amino acids, & nitrogenous wastes.
The presence of proteins or blood in urine usually indicates? A problem with filtration membrane
Intrinsic controls of glomerular filtration rate. Myogenic & tubuloglomeral feedback
Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms Directed by macula densa cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus - respond to salt concentration - increases filtration time & hinders blood flow to glomerus - or decrease filtration time & increases blood flow to glomerus.
How does Angiotensin II stabilize BP? (1) Vasoconstrictor, (2) stimulates Na+ absorption, (3) stimulates hypothalamus to release ADH, (4) Increases fluid reabsorption, (5) and causes mesangial cells to contract & reduce GFR.
What triggers renin release? BP drop, low salt concentration, sympathetic NS stimulation.
anuria Abnormally low urinary output - less htan 50 ml/day.
80% of energy used for active transport of __. sodium ions
Na+ reabsorption by primary active transport provides the energy & means __. for reabsorbing most other solutes
Reabsorption of water, ions, & nutrients does not require __. ATP
Water is absorbed through aquaporins in the __. proximal nephron - obligatory water reabsorption
Transport maximum Substances are absorbed according to the type & quantity of carriers - when carriers saturated, no absorption occurs.
Creatine concentration measurements are good tests for __. GFR & glomerular function.
Water can leave __ limb of Loop of Henle, but not __ limb. descending - ascending
Solute can leave __ limb of loop of Henle, but not __ limb. ascending - descending
Reabsorption of more water depends on __. presence of ADH
Aldosterone acts to conserve __. Na+
ANP __ blood Na+. reduces
Urine contains both __ & __ substances. filtered & secreted
Tubular secretion mechanism secretes __ to buffer acidic blood pH & retains more __. H+, HCO3 (base)
Milliosmol (mOsm) milliosmol - .001 osmol
Penal functions keep solute load of body fluids constant at about __. 300 mOsm
countercurrent mechanism Fluid in kidneys flow through adjacent tubules in opposite directions - maintains osmotic gradient
Loop of Henle adjacent to __. calyyx which is connected to renal pelvis.
Loop functions as a __. counter current multiplier - water leaves by osmosis through descending & is most concentrated in loop.
Where is the countercurrent exchanger? The vasa recta
ADH stimulates excretion of __ urine. highly concentrated
The vasa recta as countercurrent exchanger does? Protects medullary gradient by preventing rapid removal of salt. Removes reabsorbed water.
When ADH not being released __. collecting ducts remain inpremeable to water de to absence of aquaporins.
ADH inhibits __. diuresis - urine output - filtrate is dilute & not excreted.
ADH release is keyed to __. level of body hydration
Faculative water reabsorption water reabsorption dependent on ADH presence.
Osmotic diuretic A substance that is not reabsorbed & carries water out with it - DM & high glucose
Alcohol is diuretic because? As a sedative, it inhibits ADH release.
Caffine is a diuretic because? Inhibits sodium reabsorption
Lasix is a diuretic because? Inhibit formation of medullary gradient by acting at ascending limb of Henle's loop.
__ is the standard used to determine GFR. Inulin - comparison for how quickly & how much of a drug is absorbed.
osmoregulation The events resulting in maintaining a fluid environment in balance.
The solute concentration is always highest in the very deepest parts of the __. inner medulla
Most water is reabsorbed across the permeable walls of the __ & the decending limb of the __. proximal tubule, loop of Henle
Sodium is pumped outward in the __. ascending limb
Females have __ urethra's than men. smaller
cystitis bladder infection
pyelonephritis kidney infection
The hormone __ helps adjust the rate at which water is reabsorbed. ADH - antidiuretic hromone
A hormone called __ helps adjust the rate at which sodium is reabsorbed. aldosterone
Juxtaglomerular apparatus "Next to" glomerular - area where arterioles of the glomerulus come into contact with a nephron's distal tubule.
renin Enzyme secreted by kidneys that triggers reaction that secretes aldosterone.
bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer system Operates in lungs - CO2 provides teh carbon atom to make bicarbonate - this buffers H+.
3 steps of how urine forms (1) filtration, (2) reabsorption, (3) secretion
Kidney stones (renal calculi) Deposits of uric acid, calcium salts, etc. & collected into the renal pelvis.
Color of urine due to __ & pH is usually __. urochrome pigment (bilirubin or bile pigments) - slightly acidic (pH6)
Each ureter begins at level of __ as continuation of __. L2 - renal pelvis
dysuria painful urination
hypospadias Urethral opening in wrong place on penis
nocturia need to get up & urinate at night
Created by: Ladystorm