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AP Euro Reformation


Who was Charles V? Became famous for opposing Luther's 95 thesis. Became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and opposed the protestant reformation.
Who was Henry VIII? Became king of England after his brother, Arthur dies. As a young man, he openly defends the Catholic church and is named the "Defender of the Faith." Had five wives. Started and headed what would later be called the Anglican church.
Who is Catherine of Aragon? Henry VIII's first wife who was initially married to Henry's older brother. Had many children but the only one who survived was a girl and thus she was shunned by Henry and later divorced.
Who is Francis !? King of France (r. 1515-1547). Rival of Emperor Charles V and King Henry VIII. Patron of Humanism.
What was the Peasant's Revolt? The lower class in europe were aroused by rising Protestant teachings and wanted better social conditions. They claimed that they were backed by Luther himself but he later condemned them and accused them of being anti-Christian. Unsuccessful.
What was the Peace of Augsburg? Stated that each state's political leader was free to state whether his respective state would be Catholic or Protestant.
Who was Martin Luther? Educated at the Modern Devotion and studied in a monastery. Gets caught in a storm and swears to devote himself to the church is he survived, so he did. Moves to Vittenburg and finds the church's standards to be too high. Starts Protestantism.
Who was Ulrich Zwingli? Swiss. Follows the Protestant movement and agrees with Luther on most all things aside from transubstantiation which he considers symbolic and Luther considers solid.
What is Anabaptism? Started by Conrad Greble. Believe people should be baptized later in life so that it is their own conscience will. No one likes them and being an Anabaptist was punishable by death.
Who was Conrad Greble? Started Anabaptism.
Who were the Jesuits? A male religious sect following the teachings of the Catholic church started by Ignatious of Loyola.
What was the Counter-Reformation? The Catholic church attempted to stifle the Protestant movement by making some superficial reforms to the church while still holding true to traditional Catholic teachings.
Predestination Idea that people's celestial fate is predisposed upon them from birth pioneered by John Calvin.
Indulgences Written pardons for one's sins. Initially able to be earned through manual labor or some other representation of one's guilt and devotion but later became nothing more than a fund-raising scam.
Diet of Worms A meeting of church leaders in 1521 that addressed Luther's 95 Thesis and ordered him to recant.
95 Theses 95 theses written by Martin Luther on the pitfalls of the Catholic church.
Wittenburg German home of Martin Luther and the birthplace of Protestantism.
October 31, 1517 "Reformation Day." The day that Luther wrote the 95 theses and kick-started the Protestant movement.
Frederick of Saxony Prominent early defender of Martin Luther and the Protestant reformation.
Usuline Order Catholic reform that established convents in Italy and France for the education of young girls of all social classes.
Theatine Order Catholic reform that groomed devout and reform-minded leaders to higher levels of the church hierarchy.
Huguenots Members of the French Protestant Church under John Calvin.
Index of Prohibited Books A list of books that were forbidden by the pope to be read. Included were works by Erasmus and Machiavelli.
William Tyndale Translated the new testament into english which began circulating England in 1526.
Ignatious Loyoloa Started the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
John Tetzel Famous salesman of Catholic indulgences.
Defense of the Seven Sacraments Paper written by Henry VIII against the protestant reformation. Earned him the name "Defender of the Faith."
Thomas More Devout catholic author of "Utopia." Served as an advisor and good friend of King Henry VIII until Henry split from the Catholic church.
Thomas Wolsey Catholic cardinal and advisor to King Henry VIII.
Thomas Cranmer Protestant inclined advisor to Henry VIII who prompted him to split from the church and create what would come to be known as the Anglican church.
Thomas Cromwell Protestant inclined advisor to Keng Henry VIII who prompted him to seperate from the church and start what would come to be known as the Anglican church.
Habsburg Family Royal family of the Holy Roman Empire from 1438 to 1740l
Tudor Family Royal family of England from 1485-1603.
John Huss Early reformer who led the Hussites. Preached in the vernacular and wanted the bibles printed as such. Believed in Lay communion for all!
John Wycliff Early reformer who lead the Lollards. Preached in the vernacular and believed in clerical piety. Wanted the clergy to focus more on the needs of their congregation than of their own pocketbooks.
John Eck German theologian who spoke out against Luther.
Swiss Civil Wars Conflicts within Switzerland between the followers of Calvin and Zwingli.
Reformation Parliament Seven year session that placed royal reigns on the clergy. Established the Anglican church with King Henry VIII at its head.
Supremacy Act Declared King Henry to be the supreme head of the Church of England.
Act of Succession Named the children of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn as the official heirs to the throne.
Spiritual Exercises A set of prayers and exercises written by Ignatious of Loyola.
William Shakespeare English playwright famous for his original dramas such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and King Lear.
Miguel de Cervantes Spanish author of Don Quixote. Satire mocking the religious idealism of the time.
Anglican Church Church started by Henry VIII after he split from the Catholic church in order to marry Anne Boleyn.
The Modern Devotion Boarding school for reform-minded laity. Taught Erasmus and Luther.
Pope Leo X Challenged Luther's 95 theses.
Edward VI The son of King Henry VIII and Jane Seymore. Gained the throne at nine at turned the Anglican church into a clearly Anglican establishment.
What was the Council of Trent? A meeting in 1545 of Catholic leaders to reassert church doctrine. It led to many reforms within the Catholic church its self such as curtailing the selling of church offices and making church leaders more proactive. No concessions were made to protestant
Created by: 1390526848