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Chapter 2

aden/o gland
adip/o fat
anter/o before, front
caud/o lower part of body, tail
cephal/o head
cyt/o cell
endo- in, within, inside
exo out of, outside, away from
hist/o tissue
-ologist specialist
-ology the science or study of
path/o disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
-plasia development, growth, formation
poster/o behind, toward the back
-stasis control, maintenance of a constant level
abdominal cavity contains primarily the majororgans of digestion
adenectomy is the surgical removal of a gland
adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
adenoma is a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue
adenomalacia is the abnormal softening of a gland
adenosclerosis is the abnormal hardening of a gland
anaplasia is a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other.
anatomy is the study of the structures of the body
anomaly is a deviation from what is regarded as normal
anterior means situated in the front. The front or forward part of an organ
aplasia is the dectective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
bloodborne transmission is the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood.
caudal means toward the lower part of the body
cephalic means toward the head
chromosomes are the genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell. These chromosomes are made up of the DNA molecules containing the body's genes.
communicable disease also known as a contagious disease, is any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects.
congenital disorder is an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
cytoplasm is the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
distal means situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
dorsal refers to the back of the organ or body
dysplasia is abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
endemic refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area
endocrine glands produce hormones, do not have ducts. hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream.
epidemic is a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area
epigastric region is located above the stomach
etiology is the study of the causes of diseases
exocrine glands such as sweat glands, secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
functional disorder produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
genetic disorder also known as a hereditary disorder, is a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
geriatrician a physician who specializes in the care of older people
hemophilia is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing
histology is the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
homeostasis is the processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
hyperplasia is the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
hypertrophy is a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues
hypogastric region is located below the stomach
hypoplasia is the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
iatrogenic illness is an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
idiopathic disorder is an illness without known cause
infectious disease is an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses
inguinal which means relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen
medial means the direction toward, or nearer, the midline
mesentery is a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
midsagittal plane also known as the midline, is the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
nosocomial infection is a disease accquired in a hospital or clinical setting
pandemic refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
pelvic cavity is the space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
peritoneum is a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum
phenylketonuria commonly known as PKU,is a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing.
physiology is the study of the functions of the structures of the body
posterior means situated in the back. It also means on the back part of an organ.
proximal means situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
retroperitoneal means located behind the peritoneum
stem cells are unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
thoracic cavity also known as the chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs.
tranverse plane is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
umbilicus which is commonly known as the belly button or navel
vector-borne transmission is the spread of a certain disease due to the bite of a vector (insects)
ventral is located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis
Created by: frenzyennie