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Med Term chapter 2


aden/o gland
adip/o fat
anter/o before,front
caud/o lower part of body, tail
cephal/o, -ceps head
cyt/o, -cyte cell
end-, endo- in, within, inside
hist/o, histi/o tissue
-ologist specialist
-ology the science or study of
path/o, -pathy diesease, suffering, feeling, emotion
plas/i, plas/o, -plasia development, growth, formtion
poster/o behind, toward the back
-stasis, -static control, maintenance of a constant level
abdominal cavity contains primarily the major organs of digestion. (Abdomen
adenectomy the surgical removal of a glaand
adenocarcinoma a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue (Malignant- Harmful)
adenoma a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium
adenomalacia undue softness of a gland
adenosclerosis hardening of a gland
anaplasia Reversion of cells to a primitive or a less differentiated form, as occurs in most malignant tumors
anatomy the science of the structure of living organisms
anomaly marked deviation from normal, especially as a result of congenital or hereditary defects
anterior situated at or directed toward the front; opposite of posterior
aplasia lack of development of an organ or tissue
bloodborne transmission Bloodborne pathogens such as HBV and HIV can be transmitted through contact with infected human blood and other potentially infectious body fluids
caudal situated more toward the cauda, or tail, than some specified reference point; toward the inferior (in humans) or posterior (in animals) end of the body
cephalic 1. Of or relating to the head. 2. Located on, in, or near the head.
chromosomes Spaghetti-like structures located within the nucleus (or central portion) of each cell. Chromosomes contain the genetic information necessary to direct the development and functioning of all cells and systems in the body
communicable disease disease the causative agents of which may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly
congenital disorder condition existing at birth and often before birth, or that develops during the first month of life (neonatal disease), regardless of causation
cytoplasm the protoplasm of a cell exclusive of that of the nucleus
distal 1. Anatomically located far from a point of reference, such as an origin or a point of attachment. 2. Situated farthest from the middle and front of the jaw, as a tooth or tooth surface
dorsal 1. pertaining to the back or to any dorsum. 2. denoting a position more toward the back surface than some other object of reference; a synonym of posterior in human anatomy and of superior in the anatomy of quadrupeds.
dysplasia . abnormality of development. 2. in pathology, alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells
endemic 1. Prevalent in or restricted to a particular region, community, or group of people. Used of a disease. 2. Enzootic
endocrine glands organs whose secretions (hormones) are released directly into the circulatory system; they include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, the pineal body, and the gonads
epidemic Spreading rapidly and extensively by infection and affecting many individuals in an area or population at the same time, as of a disease or illness.
epigastric region the part of the abdomen in the upper zone between the right and left hypochondriac regions. Also called antecardium, epigastrium. See also abdominal regions.
etiology . The science and study of the causes or origins of disease. 2. The cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis.
exocrine glands one whose secretion is discharged through a duct opening on an internal or external surface of the body
functional disorder a disorder of physiological function having no known organic basis
genetic disorder any disease or condition that is genetically determined and involves a single gene mutation, a multifactorial inheritance, or a chromosomal aberration
geriatrician a physician who has specialized postgraduate education and experience in the medical care of older persons
hemphilia Hemophilia is a genetic disorder—usually inherited—of the mechanism of blood clotting
histology that department of anatomy dealing with the minute structure, composition, and function of tissues
homeostasis The ability or tendency of an organism or a cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes
hyperplasia abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue, which increases its volume
hypertrophy enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to increase in size of its constituent cells
hypogastric region the abdominal region that is inferior and central in location, below the umbilical region and between the two iliac(inguinal) regions; called also hypogastric or pelvic region.
hypoplasia incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue
iatrogenic illness Any complication related to diagnosis and treatment of disease, regardless of whether the condition occurs as a known risk of a procedure or through errors of omission or commission
idiopathic disorder any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
infectious disease Any disease caused by the entrance, growth, and multiplication of microorganisms in the body; a germ disease. It may not be contagious
inguinal Of, relating to, or located in the groin
medial 1. of or situated in the middle 2. ordinary or average in size
mesentery Any of several folds of the peritoneum that connect the intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall, especially such a fold that envelops the jejunum and ileum
midsagittal plane a vertical plane through the midline of the body; divides the body into right and left halves. Also called the median plane
nosocomial infection an infection whose development is favoured by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff
pandemic 1. a widespread epidemic of a disease. 2. widely epidemic.
pelvic cavity the space within the walls of the pelvis
peritoneum the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal p.) and investing the contained viscera (visceral p.), the two layers enclosing a potential space
peritonitis Peritonitis is an inflammation of the membrane which lines the inside of the abdomen and all of the internal organs. This membrane is called the peritoneum.
phenylketonuria rare metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the production of the hepatic (liver) enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase
physiology 1. the science which treats of the functions of the living organism and its parts, and of the physical and chemical factors and processes involved. 2. the basic processes underlying the functioning of a species or class of organism, or any of its parts o
posterior 1. Located behind a part or toward the rear of a structure. 2. Relating to the caudal end of the body in quadrupeds or the dorsal side in humans. 3. Near the tail or caudal end of certain embryos.
proximal Nearer to a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body
retroperitoneal (posterior)Situated behind the peritoneum
stem cells Parent cells from which other cells are made
thoracic cavity the part of the ventral body cavity between the neck and the diaphragm
transverse plane one passing horizontally through the body, at right angles to the sagittal and frontal planes, and dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
umbilicus the navel; the scar marking the site of attachment of the umbilical cord in the fetus
ventral 1. pertaining to the abdomen or to any venter. 2. directed toward or situated on the belly surface; opposite of dorsal
vector-borne transmission indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person
Created by: jtrejos