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Body Organization

Scientific Method How we do research. A process of disciplined observation, logical thinking and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions
Inductive Method Process of making numerous observations first, then drawing generalizations & predictions from them
Deductive Method Process of asking question & formulating a hypothesis first, then testing what it is you predict
Hypothesis A one-sentence statement that can be answered yes or no. It is an educated speculation that will be either proved or disproved after testing w the scientific method.
Anatomy The study of structure (of the body)
Physiology The study of function (of the body)
What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method? 1) statement of problem 2) hypothesis 3) materials & methods 4)results (=strictly the straight results of the experiment 5)conclusion (whether hypothesis was proved or disproved
give four examples of anatomy 1)Gross Anatomy 2)histology 3)embryology 4)neurology
Gross Anatomy study of cadavers: study of body structures that can be seen with the naked eye
Histology Study of cells & tissue using a microscope
Embryology Study of the of the embryo to the fetus
Neurology study of the human brain
Give 3 examples of physiology 1) cell physiology: how do cells work? 2) neurophysiology: how does the brain work? 3) respiratory physiology: how does breathing work?
What are the 7 levels of complexity? 1) chemical 2) organelle 3) cellular 4) tissue 5) organ 6) organ system 7) organism
Chemical Level of complexity atoms & molecules essential for maintaining life.
Organelle level of complexity? give two examples small specialized structures contained in a cell that carry out its individual functions EX: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes
Cellular level of complexity? cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. They carry out all the basic functions of life; nothing simpler than a cell is considered alive.
Give three examples of a cell 1)muscle cell 2)nerve cell 3)blood cell
Tissue level of complexity groups of similar cells that work together to perform a particular function
Primary classes of tissue The body is composed of only four primary classes of tissue: 1)epithelial 2)muscle 3)connective 4)nervous
Epithelial tissue lines surfaces
Muscle tissue contracts
Connective tissue tissues that don't fit in other three classes EX: blood, bone tissue etc
Nervous Tissue sends signals
Organ level of complexity structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform one or more common functions
Example of a single organ belonging to two organ systems? the Pancreas belongs to digestive system and endocrine system. Digestive function = makes digestive enzymes Endocrine function = produces hormones (ex: insulin decreases blood sugar)
Organ system level of complexity several related organs that have a common function
Example of an Organ System? Gastrointestinal System: contains the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, etc. all organs work together for a common function (food digestion)
Organism level of complexity all parts of the body are functioning together to make a single complete person
Intracellular inside a cell
Extracellular Outside a cell
Intercellular/Interstitial Between cells
Homeostasis Maintenence of stable conditions. Homeostasis is the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions favorable to cellular function
An organism is in homeostasis when its internal environment has: 1) optimal concentration of ions, water, gases & nutrients 2) optimal temperature 3) optimal fluid volume
Dynamic Equilibrium describes the internal state of the body when it is in homeostasis. Internal conditions are not absolutely constant but fluctuate within a limited range.As long as conditions fluctuate slightly around the set point (average), homeostasis is maintained.
Draw dynamic equilibrium? draw set point and actual value which fluctuates near set point in a wave
Two types of stress that must be counteracted through regulation of body/homeostasis? 1)External stress (EX: going out into -50 degree temps naked) 2)Internal stress ( EX: running a marathon:internal body is stressed
Two systems that regulate the body? Nervous system Endocrine system
Nervous System Detects deviations of the balanced state and then sends messages via nerves to the proper organs to counteract the stress.
why are regulations via Nervous System faster changes? This system sends messages through a direct pathway via nerves to an exact target cell. EX: from brain to little finger.
Endocrine System A "group of glands," this system secretes chemical regulators, or "hormones" into the bloodstream to affect target cells or organs.
Why are regulations via Endocrine System slower changes? this system does not have a direct route to the exact target cell. Hormones float and wander in the bloodstream until they are near the target cell, but it takes longer because there is no direct pathway
Why are regulations via Endocrine System more prolonged? this system is not simply firing a signal and then it stops. It keeps affecting the target cell as more and more hormone goes through the bloodstream near the cell.
Feedback Loops A cycle of events in which information about the status of a condition is continually monitored and "fed back" or reported to a central control region.
Three common components of a Feedback Loop? 1) Receptor 2)Control Center 3)Effector
Receptor a structure that senses a change or imbalance in the body or deviation from set point
Example of a Receptor Baroreceptors= sensory nerve endings near heart arteries that detect falling blood pressure and transmit nerve signals to the brain
Control Center mechanism which processes information and "makes a decision" about what the appropriate response should be
Example of Control Center Cardiac center in brain: processes info from baroreceptors about falling blood pressure and sends signals to the heart to speed up the heartbeat
Effector Cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action, restoring homeostasis.
Example of Effector the Heart: it accelerates, pumps blood faster, which quickly raises blood pressure when BP drops.
Negative Feedback When the response reverses the original stimulus. The fundamental mechanism that keeps a variable close to its set point
Examples of negative feedback blood sugar level, blood pressure, body temperature.
Draw negative feedback with regards to body temperature draw the set point showing shivering/vasoconstriction and sweating/vasodilation as the stimuli that reverse body temp to stay close to the set point
Positive Feedback When the stimulus enhances the reaction. It is a self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction.
Explain the "neuroendocrine Reflex" with regards to positive feedback in childbirth 1)head of baby pushes against cervix 2)stretch receptors in cervix fire signals to the hypothalamus 3)Hypothalamus secretes the hormone oxytocin into bloodstream 4)oxytocin targets smooth muscle in uterus, causing uterine contractions & pushing baby.
When internal imbalance is moderate... you might have a disease
When internal imbalance is severe.. You will most likely die
Subjective changes Only the individual can sense the imbalance. Others can not tell. EX: stomach ache, sore throat
Objective changes Others can sense the imbalance. EX: rash all over skin
The body is divided into several ____, each lined with _____ and containing fluid-filled body cavities a membrane specific viscera
Divisions of the ventral cavity are surrounded by ___, which produce _____ serous membranes a watery, slippery liquid similar to blood serum called serous fluid.
Two layers of serous membranes 1)visceral layer = covers the viscus/organ. Forms its external surface 2)parietal layer = lines the body cavity/ attaches to surrounding structures.
Body cavities the narrow spaces between parietal layer and visceral layer of the serous membrane.
Serous Fluid a watery, slippery liquid similar to blood serum. Produced by serous membranes. Lubricates the organs in the cavity and allows them to move and slide past one another without friction.
Pericardium A two layer serous membrane located in the Thoracic Cavity that enfolds the heart.
Pericardial Cavity the space between the inner & outer linings of the Pericardium.
Pericardial Fluid slippery fluid produced by Pericardium, it lubricates the Pericardial cavity.
Visceral Pericardium The inner serous membrane lining that covers the heart/forms its external surface
Parietal Pericardium The outer serous membrane lining that lines the body cavity and attaches to surrounding structures
Pleura a two-layer serous membrane in the Thoracic Cavity that enfolds each of the lungs.
Pleural Cavity the space between the inner and outer linings of the Pleura
Pleural Fluid slippery water-likd fluid produced by Pleura, it lubricates the Pleural Cavity
Visceral Pleura The inner serous membrane lining that covers the lung
Parietal Pleura The outer serous membrane lining that attaches to the cavity wall i.e. the ribcage
Peritoneum a two-layer serous membrane located in the Abdominopelvic Cavity that enfolds most of the viscera of the digestive, lymphatic & reproductive system.
Peritoneal Cavity The space between the inner and outer linings of the Peritoneum
Peritoneal Fluid slippery fluid produced by the Peritoneum, it lubricates the Peritoneal cavity.
Visceral Peritoneum covers abdominal viscera; turns inward from the cavity wall, wraps around the abdominal viscera, binding them to the body wall or suspending them from it and holding them in the proper place.
Parietal Peritoneum The outer serous membrane that attaches to the cavity wall.
Serous Membrane lines cavities of the body NOT open to the outside. They make serous fluid. They are two-layer membranes; inner lining is visceral membrane and outer lining is parietal membrane
Mucous Membrane Lines cavities of the body that are open to the outside EX: mouth, nasal cavity, vagina.
Mucus Produced by cells of mucous membrane. cells make mucin which hits moisture to make mucus.
Midsagittal The sagittal plane that divides the body into EQUAL right and left halves. It is the midline longitudinal plane
Parasagittal other sagittal planes (parallel to the midsagittal plane) that divide the body into UNEQUAL right and left portions (not halves)
Sagittal passes vertically through body or organ and divides it into right and left portions
Frontal/Coronal longitudinal plane dividing body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Transverse/Cross-Section horizontal plane that passes across the body or organ (perpendicular to its longitudinal axis), dividing it into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
Prone Lying face down
Supine Lying face up
Superior closer to the head, above
Inferior closer to the feet, below
Posterior closer to the back/dorsal side of the body
Anterior Closer to the front/ventral side of the body
Medial closer to the median plane
Lateral Farther from the median plane
Proximal Closer to the limb's point of attachment
Distal Farther from the limb's point of attachment
Superficial closer to the body surface, "external"
Deep farther from the body surface "internal"
Ipsilateral on the same side of the body
Contralateral on the opposite side of the body
Structure that can be observed with the naked eye is called.. gross anatomy
the word root homeo means same
the simplest structures considered to be alive are cells
an informed, uncertain, but testable conjecture is a hypothesis
a self-amplifying chain of physiological events is called positive feedback
which of the following is not a human organ system: integumentary, muscular, epithelial, nervous, endocrine? epithelial
the prefix hetero- means different
cutting and separating tissues to reveal structural relationships is called dissection
by the process of _____, a scientist predicts what the result of a certain experiment will be if his or her hypothesis is correct deduction
the tendency of the body to maintain stable internal conditions is called homeostasis
self-corrective mechanisms in physiology are called negative feedback
a _____ is the simplest body structure to be composed of two or more types of tissue organ
Blood pH averages 7.4 but fluctuates from 7.35 to 7.45. A pH of 7.4 can therefore be considered the _____ for this variable set point
auscult- listen
dis- apart (dissection)
homeo- the same (homeostasis)
metabolo- change (metabolism)
palp- touch (palpation)
physio- nature (physiology)
-sect cut (dissection)
-stasis to stay (homeostasis)
stereo- solid (stereoscopic)
tomo- to cut (tomography)
anatomical position reference posture that allows for standardized anatomical terminology. A subject in anatomical position is standing with the feet close together & flat on the floor, arms down to the sides, and the palms and face directed forward.
a ring-shaped section of the small intestine would be a _____ section transverse (cross)
A ____ line passes through the sternum, umbilicus, and mons pubis midsagittal
The tarsal region is ____ to the popliteal region distal
The ____ region is immediately medial to the coxal region inguinal
which of the following regions is not part of the upper limb: plantar, carpal, cubital, brachial, palmar plantar
which of these organs is within the peritoneal cavity: urinary bladder, kidneys, heart, liver, brain liver
the forearm is said to be ____ when the palms are facing forward supinated
The superficial layer of the pleura is called the _____ pleura parietal pleura
The right and left pleural cavities are separated by a thick wall called the ____ mediastinum
The back of the neck is the ___ region nuchal
the sternal region is ____ to the pectoral region medial
the pelvic cavity can be described as _____ to the abdominal cavity in position inferior
the anterior pit of the elbow is the _____ region, and the corresponding (but posterior) pit of the knee is the _____ region cubital, popliteal
ante- before (antebrachium)
cervico neck (cervical)
epi- above (epigastric)
hypo- below (hypodermis)
inguino- groin (inguinal)
intra- within (intracellular)
parieto- wall (parietal)
peri- around (peritoneum)
retro- behind (retroperitoneal
sagitto arrow (sagittal)
mediastinum the thick median partition of the thoracic cavity that separates one pleural cavity from the other and contains the heart, great blood vessels, and thymus.
cervical neck region
cubital elbow region, (anterior)
antebrachial forearm region (anterior)
trochanteric outer hip region
palmar palm region
digital finger region
inguinal groin region
pubic genital region
femoral thigh region
patellar knee region (anterior)
crural shin region
tarsal ankle region
cephalic head region (top)
orbital eye region
otic ear region
buccal cheek region
mental chin region
acromial shoulder region
mammary nipple region
axillary armpit region
umbilical belly button region
thoracic chest region, includes sternal and pectoral regions
dorsum top of foot region
plantar sole of foot region
pedal foot region, includes dorsum & plantar region
occipital region in back of the head (posterior)
scapular back of shoulders/scapula
olecranon elbow region (posterior)
lumbar lower back region
popliteal knee region (posterior)
sural calf region
calcaneal heel region (posterior)
carpal wrist region
sacral lowest back (sacrum)
tarsal ankle region
cranial head (posterior)
label the anterior regions of the body see page 1
label the anatomical planes of the body see page 1
label the posterior regions of the body see page 1
label the terms of direction see page 1
label the body cavities and serous membranes see page 2
Created by: kalmetina
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